• 真题
    机经-口语Read Aloud

  • 更新日期2018-11-14题目数量153

  • A 'flattening' of the world

  • The beginning of the twenty-first century will be remembered, not for military conflicts or political events, but for a whole new age of globalization – a 'flattening' of the world. The explosion of advanced technologies now means that suddenly knowledge pools and resources have connected all over the planet, leveling the playing field as never before.

  • Admission(收集中)

  • Adulthood

  • Once most animals reach adulthood, they stop growing. In contrast, even plants that are thousands of years old continue to grow new needles, add new wood, and produce cones and new flowers, almost as if parts of their bodies remained “forever young”. The secrets of plant growth are regions of tissue that can produce cells that later develop into specialized tissues.

  • Age Discrimination

  • Many people believe that employers discriminate against older people because youths have more energy and creativity. This is not true. The main reason for hiring younger workers is payroll. In most countries, your salary is dependent on how many years of work experience you have. It is far more cost efficient to hire postgraduates, fresh out of university, than senior staff with over twenty years of industry knowledge.

  • Akimbo

  • akimbo, this must be one of the odder-looking words in the language. It puzzles us in part because it doesn't seem to have any relatives. What's more, it is now virtually a fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in "arms akimbo", a posture in which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one that signals impatience, hostility, and contempt.

  • Arms

  • Unlike the United Kingdom, which has taken a relatively restrictive approach on the possession of arms, the United States has taken a more lenient approach. In the United States, three models have evolved regarding the interpretation of the meaning of the right to bear and keep arms as delineated in the Second amendment.

  • Atlantis

  • For centuries, Atlantis has been one of the western world’s favorite legends. a tantalizing blend of fantasy and mystery. Stories tell of a rich and glorious empire that was lost to the sea --- where some hope its ruins still lie, waiting to be discovered.

  • Augustus

  • Augustus was given the powers of an absolute monarch, but he presented himself as the preserver of republican traditions. He treated the Senate, or state council, with great respect, and was made Consul year after year. He successfully reduced the political power of the army by retiring many soldiers, but giving them land or money to keep their loyalty.

  • Avi Loeb

  • The situation is similar to a pregnant woman that has twin babies in her belly. Avi Loeb of the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. He's proposing the idea in a paper that's been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

  • Blue

  • While blue is one of the most popular colors, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Food researchers say that when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black, or purple. When food dyed blue is served to study subjects, they lose appetite.

  • Bonus

  • If bonus or incentive pay schemes work so well for chief executive and bankers, why does everyone not get them? After all, many jobs involve making important decisions or taking risks is there anything about corporate decision and financial risks that makes these categories of work special in terms of how they need to be incentivized and rewarded?

  • Botanic Garden

  • Botanic gardens are scientific and cultural institutions established to collect, study, exchange and display plants for research and for the education and enjoyment of the public. There are major botanic gardens in each capital city. Zoological parks and aquariums are primarily engaged in the breeding, preservation and display of native and exotic fauna in captivity.

  • Brain

  • The brain is divided into two hemispheres, called the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere provided a different set of functions, behaviors, and controls. The right hemisphere is often called the creative side of the brain, while the left hemisphere is the logical or analytical side of the brain.

  • Breeding areas

  • Major breeding areas, and breeding islands, are shown as dark green areas or darts. Open darts are shown no breeding records on islands, and are also used for offshore sightings, that is from ships or boats. Other areas where species are not meant to be seen are plain pale green, with pale green hatching were records are usually sparse.

  • Caffeine

  • Researchers gathered 160 uncaffeinated adults, people who consumed less than 500 milligrams of caffeine a week. These decaf subjects looked at pictures of various objects, then took either a placebo or a pill containing 200 milligrams of caffeine. That’s roughly the amount you'd get from two cups of coffee.

  • Candidates

  • While the republican field is packed with male candidates, so far, some of the sharpest Clinton critics have come from women. Democrats successfully campaigned on an alleged GOP perpetrated "war on women" in 2012, but faltered in 2014 when they tried the same tactic. With Hillary Clinton as the likely Democratic nominee, the fight for women voters will be a central part of the 2016 campaign.

  • Carbon dioxide emissions

  • When countries assess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush fires are not included presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectares burn each year in both 2004 and the present summer, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.

  • Carbon emissions

  • This is what needs to happen on climate change: the world needs to put a price on carbon emissions and let the market respond. If politicians pretend this can be done without pain, it will probably result in another five to ten years of pretending to take action.

  • Caterpillars

  • "The caterpillars that feed on trees are trying to match the hatching of their eggs to the timing of bud burst. The caterpillars want to feed on the juiciest and least chemically protected leaves. And it's not just the caterpillars, of course, that are important. But the knock-on effect is on nesting birds, which are also trying to hatch their chicks at the same time that there's the maximum number of caterpillars."

  • CD quality sound

  • Reiss took a stab at settling the argument with a meta-analysis — a study of studies — on whether people can really perceive better-than-CD quality sound. He analyzed data from 18 studies, including more than 400 participants and nearly 13,000 listening tests. Overall, listeners picked out the better-than-CD-quality track 52.3 percent of the time. Statistically significant, if not all that impressive.

  • Chronic disease

  • If you have a chronic disease such as heart disease, diabetes, asthma, or back or joint pain, exercise can have important health benefits. However, it is important to talk to your doctor before starting an exercise routine. He or she might have advice on what exercises are safe and any precautions you might need to take while exercising.

  • Clouds

  • Howard believed that all clouds belonged to three distinct groups: cumulus, stratus and cirrus. He added a fourth category, nimbus, to describe a cloud in the act of condensation into rain, hail or snow. It is by observing how clouds change color and shape that weather can be predicted, and as long as it is the first three of cloud to keep their normal shape there won't be any rain.

  • Coastal wetlands

  • The coastal wetlands have environmental and economic importance. Wetlands provide natural wealth. They have important filtering capabilities. As the runoff water passes, they retain excess nutrients and some pollutants. They maintain water flow during dry periods. Thousands of people depend on groundwater for drinking. They act as natural sponges of flood waters and contain soil erosion. They control floods and save buildings from collapsing during heavy rains. The hardwood-riparian wetlands along the Mississippi River can store sixty days of floodwater.

  • Company-oriented reforms

  • The climate for doing business improved in Egypt more than in any other country last year, according to a global study that revealed a wave of company-oriented reforms across the Middle East. The World Bank rankings, which look at business regulations, also showed that the pace of business reforms in Eastern Europe was overtaking East Asia.

  • Dike formation

  • This study marks the first-time scientists have linked dike formation to large, damaging earthquakes, and Wauthier is looking back through history for more examples. She says researchers will never be able to predict exactly when an earthquake might strike after a dike intrusion. But at least now, researchers and rift zone residents know they're not just in for bangs they may also be in for shudders.

  • Dolphins

  • Dolphins, whales, and porpoises are all social animals, but some species are more sociable than others. This depends on the environment because a species adopts the lifestyle most suitable for this. Among dolphins, forming groups makes it easier for them to find food, reproduce and gain knowledge. They are safer, too, because dolphins can communicate danger when there are threats around.

  • Domestication

  • Domestication is an evolutionary, rather than a political development. They were more likely to survive and prosper in an alliance with humans than on their own. Human provided the animals with food and protection, in exchange for which the animals provided the humans their milk and eggs, and yes, their flesh.

  • Donor countries

  • In 2005, donor countries agreed on an accord to harmonize their practices. Since then, aid officials have complained that too little has changed on the ground. Conferences of donors in developing countries still tend to be dominated by a small group of north European governments, with the US often absent.

  • Easy-to-use statistics

  • The development of easy-to-use statistics is being taught and learned. Students can make transformations of variables, create graphs of distributions of variables, and select among statistical analyses all at the click of a button. However, even with these advancements, students sometimes find statistics to be an arduous task.

  • Ecotourism

  • You may have heard of the new fad known as ecotourism. This means tourism which is environmentally friendly, and conscious about conserving the environment. The key is to minimize the physical, social and behavioral impacts of overseas travel. Tour groups will often work with local and indigenous communities to design respectful and memorable programs for visitors.

  • Edison and Tesla V2

  • Tesla actually worked for Edison in his early career. Edison offered to pay him the modern equivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having with his DC generators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison's machines and when he asked him for the money he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say:" Tesla, you don't understand our American humor".

  • Energy and pollution

  • Humans need to use energy in order to exist. So it is unsurprising that the way people have been producing energy is largely responsible for current environmental problems. Pollution comes in many forms, but those that are most concerning, because of their impact on health, resulting from the combustion of fuels in power stations and cars.

  • Energy efficiency

  • This finding is understandable in certain cases in spite of its high significance; that is because energy efficiency of building operation just represents a single aspect of sustainability. By the same token, an energy efficient building with poor building material choices may not be considered sustainable.

  • English Language

  • In the past, naming English as a separate subject seemed relatively easy. The textbook selected and graded items of language which were put into content and then practiced intensively. New items were carefully controlled so that the student could cope quite easily. Now that English is used as a medium of instruction,  however, all of this has changed. Unknown items of grammar and vocabulary appear in texts which attempt to explain new and often difficult information. Difficulties with the language interact with difficulties as regards to the subject matter.

  • English Revolution

  • There are three main interpretations of the English Revolution. The longest lasting interpretation was that the Revolution was the almost inevitable outcome of an age-old power struggle between parliament and crown. The second sees it as a class struggle and a lead-up to the French and other revolutions. Finally, the third interpretation sees the other two as too fixed, not allowing for unpredictability, and that the outcome could have gone either way.

  • Environment problems

  • Environment problems caused by hard rock mining involve water pollution by metals themselves, chemicals used in processing, acid drainage, and sediment. Metals and metal-like elements in the ore are toxic and prone to cause trouble by ending up in nearby streams and water tables as a result of mining operations.

  • Estimates

  • Historically what has been used to estimate bats has been photographic estimates, visual estimates, mark-recapture estimates, and those have been highly prone to bias. Newer technology, like thermal imaging cameras is accurate, but expensive. So at a time of epic bat mortality-due to, for example, the fungal white-nose syndrome that's wiping out bats in Canada and the U.S. Kloepper says her method might be a cheap, reliable way to determine the most critical caves to save.

  • Fast radio burst

  • First discovered in 2007, "fast radio burst" continue to defy explanation. These cosmic chirps last a thousandth of a second. The characteristics of the radio pulses suggested that they came from galaxies billions of light-years away. However, new works point to a much closer origin-flaring star within our own galaxy.

  • Father

  • Ever since I remembered, father woke up at five thirty every morning, made breakfast for us all and read newspaper. After that he would go to work. He worked as a writer. It was a long time before I realize he did this for a living.

  • Flags

  • In the Middle Ages, the design and use of flags were considered a means of identifying social status. Flags were, therefore, the symbols not of nations, but of the nobility. The design of each flag resembled the "devices" on the noble's Coat of Arms, and the size of the flags was an indication of how high the owner stood in the nobility.

  • Food

  • Food is one of the most important things you'll ever buy. And yet most people never bother to think about their food and where it comes from. People spend a lot more time worrying about what kind of blue jeans to wear, what kind of video games to play, what kind of computers to buy.

  • Free trade

  • Free trade is an economic policy under which the government does not interfere with trade. No tariffs are applied to imports or exports, and people are allowed to trade goods and services as they please. Supply and demand dictate the prices for which goods and services sell and are the only factors that determine how resources are allocated to society.

  • Funds

  • At the beginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account in accordance with the University's financial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.

  • Furniture

  • There are perhaps three ways of looking at furniture: some people see it as purely functional and useful, and don't bother themselves with aesthetics; others see it as essential to civilized living and concern themselves with design and how the furniture will look in a room - in other words, function combined with aesthetics; and yet others see furniture as a form of art.

  • Galaxy

  • One of the unidentifiable objects in this study lies just outside Centaurus A (NGC 5128), an elliptical galaxy located about 12 million light-years from Earth. The other is in a globular cluster of stars found just outside NGC 4636, another elliptical galaxy located 47 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Virgo.

  • Genuine republic

  • In a genuine republic, the will of the government is dependent on the will of the society, and the will of the society is dependent on the reason of the society. In Federalist 51, for example, James Madison claimed that the extent and structure of the government of the United States make it dependent on the will of the society.

  • Glamorous person

  • Who do you think is the most glamorous person? A biotechnologist who led his company in international research, an ordinary welder who gained international fame through his work, or a photographer complimented widely for a series of photos?

  • Global management

  • The one-year programme of the master in global management is designed only for those who have the graduate degree in the thesis, increasing temporary skill of new managers in an international capacity, something that recruiters are looking for more and more.

  • Global warming

  • Global warming is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere. This trend began in the middle of the 20th century and is one of the major environmental concerns of scientists and governmental officials worldwide. The changes in temperature result mostly from the effect of increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.

  • Global warming V2

  • Global warming is defined as an increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere. This trend began in the middle of the 20th century and is one of the major environmental concerns of scientists and governmental officials worldwide. The changes in temperature result mostly from the effect of increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.

  • Grand Canyon

  • The Grand Canyon is 277 miles long, up to 18 miles wide and attains a depth of over a mile. While the specific geologic processes and timing that formed the Grand Canyon are the subject of debate by geologists, recent evidence suggests the Colorado River established its course through the canyon at least 17 million years ago.

  • Growth rate

  • How quickly is the world’s population growing? In the United States and other developed countries, the current growth rate is very low. In most developing countries, the human population is growing at a rate of 3 percent per second. Because of this bustling growth rate, the human population is well on its way to reaching 9 billion within lifetime.

  • Habitat quality

  • But they did find something that had a much bigger impact on wildlife: habitat quality. The best predictor of wildlife abundance was not human activity, but factors like forest connectivity, nearby housing density, and the amount of adjacent agriculture. The results were published in the Journal of Applied Ecology.

  • Hackers

  • The Office of Personnel Management was the target of the attack, but data from nearly every government agency was stolen. U.S. investigators say they believe Chinese hackers were behind the breach.

  • Hamburg University

  • Three professors from hamburg University's medical faculty travelled last month to Ingeborg's sitting room in East Berlin to test her on the work she carried out in pre war Germany.

  • He

  • By beginning so early, he knows that he has plenty of time to do thoroughly all the work he can be expected to do. All his work having been finished in good time, he has a long interval of rest in the evening before the timely hour when he goes to bed. After a sound night's rest, he rises early next morning in good health and spirits for the labors of a new day.

  • Hemingway’s Lifestyle

  • It is difficult to tell whether the speaker approves of Hemingway's lifestyle or not. He was famously macho and spent a lot of time hunting wild animals, going to wars and getting into fights. All these things got into his books, and the speaker thinks that this is not necessarily a good thing as it means that too many people prefer to read about his life than read his books.

  • Historian

  • As a historian, if you really want to understand the sensibilities of those who lived in the past, you must be like a novelist and get into the skins of your characters and think and feel as they do. You are asked to imagine what it's like to be a peasant in medieval times, asking the sort of questions a peasant might ask. What the writer is saying is that a historian needs imaginative sympathy with ordinary people in the past.

  • History

  • History rubs shoulders and often overlaps with many other areas of research, from myths and epics to the social sciences, including economics, politics, biography, demography, and much else besides. Some histories are almost pure narratives, while others go in for detailed, tightly-focused analyses of, for example, the parish records of a Cornish village in the 16th century.

  • Hunted species

  • It's not that human activities didn't impact wildlife at all of course. Heavily hunted species, like white-tailed deer, grey squirrels, and raccoons, were photographed somewhat less often in hunted areas. Coyotes showed up more often in hunted areas. While most species didn’t avoid hiding trails, the predators actually preferred them.

  • Immense Disparity

  • The core of the problem was the immense disparity between the country's productive capacity and the ability of people to consume. Great innovations in productive techniques during and after the war raised the output of industry beyond the purchasing capacity of U.S. farmers and earners.

  • Improvement

  • Analysts were impressed by the improvement in margins reported across all regions, apart from the United Kingdom, and said that this reflected a clear effort to improve profitability across the business. Although the turnaround is still in its early stages and the valuation looks full, given the challenge of turning around such a large and complex business, this is certainly an impressive start.

  • Industrial Revolution

  • As to the Industrial Revolution, one cannot dispute today the fact that it has succeeded in inaugurating in a number of countries a level of mass prosperity which was undreamt of in the days preceding the Industrial Revolution. But, on the immediate impact of the Industrial Revolution, there were substantial divergences among writers.

  • Insults and criticism

  • The insults and criticism were not unexpected. What was surprising was people's enthusiasm about the competition. Thousands have participated in the discussion.

  • Integration

  • Currently, integration is increasingly needed in the business environment. This need emerges from the efficiency and synergy requirements necessary in a complex and turbulent environment. In other words, integration is needed to facilitate coordination, which is again related to the building of competitive advantage.

  • Introvert and extrovert

  • introvert (or those of us with introverted tendencies) tends to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowds. extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. They recharge by being social.

  • IT

  • IT may well change the way you live, yet again. Welcome to the world of mobile commerce, where your hand-held device, it's a mobile phone, a personal digital assistant (PDA) or any other wireless application will soon be used for commercial transactions. skeptical? Consider these facts in Japan, mobile phones are used for location-based services where the mobile service provider tie up with a host of other players such as restaurants, car rental companies etc. When the mobile user enters that zone, messages from all these players are flashed on the mobile device. Location based services are provided in several other countries as well.

  • Job of doctor

  • In the fast-changing world of modern healthcare, the job of a doctor is more and more like the job of a chief executive. The people who run hospitals and physicians' practices don't just need to know medicine. They must also be able to balance budgets, motivate a large and diverse staff and make difficult marketing and legal decisions.

  • Language

  • It seems that language appeared from nowhere since no other species has anything resembling human language. However, other animals do possess basic systems for perceiving and producing sounds that enable them to communicate. These systems may have been in place before the appearance of language.

  • Language diversity

  • The diversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Just as the demise of plant spices reduces genetic diversity, and deprives humanity or potential medical and biological resources. So extinction of language takes with it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.

  • Life expectancy

  • Life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century. Most people these days will live for over 70 years. This is more than double the lifespan of the average human in the seventeenth century. We can attribute our longevity to advances in medicine and lifestyle. While everyone agrees that living longer is wonderful, overpopulation is becoming a serious environmental concern.

  • Lincoln's

  • Lincon's apparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalating scope of war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a military necessity.

  • Living room

  • Living room is the most used part that withholds most of the traffic coming in and out of the house. It is highly recommended that the flooring should be strong enough that it can endure all such amendments done with your furniture or to the increasing and decreasing ratio of visitors. For this purpose, you can opt for hardwood flooring. Being classy and sophisticated in look it is the perfect choice for your living room whenever you are remodelling your home.

  • Long-Distance Fliers

  • The researchers think that long-distance fliers such as the American golden-plover and the white-rumped sandpiper picked up the spores while lining their nests. Then when the birds arrive in new places they molt, leaving behind the feathers and their precious cargo-to start growing again at the other end of the world.

  • Lure new students

  • In an attempt to lure new students, leading business schools - including Harvard, Stanford, the University of Chicago and Wharton - have moved away from the unofficial missions and prerequisites of four years' work experience and instead have set their sights on recent college graduates and so-called early career professionals with only a couple years of work under their belt.

  • Marijuana

  • Another administration option is to bake marijuana at a relatively low temperature to kill any dangerous microorganisms and then allow that patient to eat it or drink it. Both of these methods of administration make smoking the drug unnecessary. However, criticism of medical marijuana has also been raised because as a natural plant, it cannot be patented and marketed by pharmaceutical companies and is unlikely to win widespread medical acceptance.

  • Marine biologist

  • The speaker is a marine biologist who became interested in the Strandlopers, an ancient people who lived on the coastline, because of their connection to the sea. Their way of life intrigued him. As a child he had spent a lot of time by the sea, exploring and collecting things so he began to study them, and discovered some interesting information about their way of life, how they hunted, what tools they used, and so on.

  • Market research

  • Market research is a vital part of the planning of any business. However experienced you or your staff may be in a particular field if you are thinking of introducing a service to a new area. It is important to find out what the local population thinks about it first.

  • Methodology

  • Certain types of methodology are more suitable for some research projects than others. For example, the use of questionnaires and surveys is more suitable for quantitative research whereas interviews and focus groups are more often used for qualitative research purposes.

  • Microbes

  • Such cross-protection is usually seen between two animals. But Gore studies the same sort of mutualism in microbes. He and his team demonstrated the first experimental example of that cross-protective relationship in drug-resistant microbes, using two strains of antibiotic-resistant E. coli bacteria: one resistant to ampicillin, the other to chloramphenicol.

  • Modern buildings

  • Modern buildings have to achieve certain performance requirements, at least to satisfy those of building codes, to provide a safe, healthy, and comfortable environment. However, these conditioned environments demand resources in energy and materials, which are both limited in supply, to build and operate.

  • Moods

  • Moods may also have an effect on how information is processed, by influencing the extent to which judges rely on pre-existing, internal information, or focus on new, external information. Positive moods promote more holistic and top-down processing style, while negative moods recruit more stimulus-driven and bottom-up processing.

  • Natural Selection

  • Charles Darwin published his paper "On the Origin of Species" in 1859. It is one of the most well-known pieces of scientific literature in human history. In the paper, Darwin proposes the theory of natural selection. He states that for any generation of any species, there will always be a struggle for survival. Individuals who are better suited to the environment are "fitter", and therefore have a much higher chance of surviving and reproducing. This means that later generations are likely to inherit these stronger genetic traits.

  • Neuro science

  • Since plato, philosophers have described the decision-making process as either rational or emotional: we carefully deliberate or we "blink" and go with our gut. But as scientists break open the mind's black box with the latest tools of neuro science, they're discovering that this is not how the mind works. Our best decisions are a finely tuned blend of both feeling and reason – and the precise mix depends on the situation.

  • Non-material culture

  • For the purposes of argument, culture is divided into material and non-material, and the speaker's aim is to show how they both affect each other. Material developments in tools and technology can affect non-material culture, our customs and beliefs, and the other way around. Genetics is used as an example as it has changed the way we think about life, but also our beliefs have affected its rate of development.

  • Off button

  • Parents can communicate their personal feelings about undesirable programs both by discouraging their children from watching them and by writing to their local television station or to the program's sponsors. The public does have a voice. Clearly, not all programs need please everybody. We do have a choice of programs and we also have a choice, for ourselves and at least for our younger children, of watching or not watching. There is an off button on every set!

  • Philippe de Montebello

  • Using more than fifty interviews, award-winning writer Danny danziger creates a fascinating mosaic of the people behind New York's magnificent metropolitan Museum of Art from the aristocratic, acerbic director of the museum, Philippe de Montebello, to the curators who have a deep knowledge and passionate appreciation of their collections, from the security guards to the philanthropists who keep the museum's financial lifeblood flowing.

  • Plant

  • Although it hails from a remote region of the western Himalayas, this plant now looks entirely at home on the banks of English rivers. Brought to the UK in 1839, it quickly escaped from Victorian gardens and colonized river banks and damp woodlands. Now it is spreading across Europe, New Zealand, Canada and the US.

  • Pluto

  • Pluto lost its official status as a planet yesterday, when the International Astronomical Union downsized the solar system from nine to eight planets. Although there had been a passionate debate at the IAU General Assembly Meeting in Prague about the definition of a planet - and whether Pluto met the specifications - the audience greeted the decision to exclude it with applause.

  • Police force

  • Britain, then, was slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe. France had one long before indeed, the word police is taken from the French. This fact was not unimportant, as the very idea of a police force was seen as foreign as that is, French and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.

  • Quotes

  • Many papers you write in college will require you to include quotes from one or more sources. Even if you don't have to do it, integrating a few quotes into your writing can add life and persuasiveness to your arguments. The key is to use quotes to support a point you're trying to make rather than just include them to fill space.

  • Reading

  • The student’s reading in his own subject slows down, and his comprehension becomes less secure. He expresses himself slowly and often fails to convey his ideas exactly. He is disappointed to find out that under pressure he makes a lot of unnecessary mistakes in areas where he knows the correct language forms. His social relations are difficult as he cannot find the right phrase quickly enough to keep a conversation going, so his language often betrays him into dullness, coldness, or worst of all, rudeness. Instead of the students being in control of the language, the language seems now to be in control of the students.

  • Recent trend

  • A recent trend in the entertainment world is to adapt classic works of literature for either TV or movies. One argument is that this is to everyone’s benefit, as it introduces people to works they might otherwise never have, but is rarely done successfully.

  • Rehabilitation

  • The primary application we’re targeting at first is to give people a decision aid during rehabilitation, following an acute knee injury, to help them understand when they can perform particular activities, and when they can move to different intensities of particular activities. A useful thing to take crack at.

  • Roman writers

  • Roman writers and orators began to expand their imaginative and intellectual horizons and refine the Latin language through the study of Greek literature. Early Roman literature had two kinds the recording and examination of public life and behavior through life stories of famous men, and the particularly Roman art of satirical comedy and drama.

  • Samuel Shian

  • Study author Samuel Shian, a materials scientist, says this smart glass is cheaper than others, and uses minimal power much less, for example, than something like a curling iron. And since it's flexible and foldable, he says it could even be used for things like camouflage uniforms, to switch, for example, from green and brown to white and gray. "This would be very useful when the background landscape suddenly changes, such as during early snowfall."

  • Shakespeare

  • A young man from a small provincial town, a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections and without a university education, moves to London in the late 1580's, and in a remarkably short time, became the greatest playwright. Not of his age alone but of all time. How is an achievement of this magnitude to be explained? How did Shakespeare become Shakespeare?

  • Sleep apnea

  • The second group that is particularly vulnerable are night shift workers...and the third group that is particularly vulnerable are people with sleep disorders, particularly sleep apnea. One out of three men and one out of six women have sleep apnea. And yet, 85 percent are undiagnosed and untreated. And it more than doubles the risk of crashes.

  • Smoking ban

  • A smoking ban is a public policy that includes criminal laws and health regulations that prohibit smoking in certain public places and workspaces. There are varying definitions of smoking employed in this legislation. The strictest definitions define smoking as being the inhalation of any tobacco substance while the loosest define smoking as possessing any lit tobacco product.

  • Solar energy

  • Solar energy is an excellent source of supplying power to homes and companies, and by utilizing solar power you're not merely protecting the environment from becoming polluted but also you are saving the rest of the earth's natural resources. Capturing solar energy does not contribute to any pollution and does not harm the atmosphere. One of the factors why many individuals are still hesitant to make use of solar power is because it is expensive. The need of big location of space is another reason why people aren't taking into consideration solar power.

  • Spelling system

  • The problem begins with the alphabet itself. Building a spelling system for English using letters that come from Latin, despite the two languages not sharing exactly the same set of sounds, is like building a playroom using an IKEA office set.

  • Statistical software

  • The development of easy-to-use statistical software has changed the way statistics is being taught and learned. Students can make transformations of variables, create graphs of distributions of variables, and select among statistical analyses all at the click of a button. However, even with these advancements, students sometimes still find statistics to be an arduous task.

  • Studying abroad

  • Studying abroad is a very popular option for students who come from a wealthy family. Most people believe that overseas experience provides a deeper understanding of cultures and develops communication skills. While this may be true, not all of these new experiences are useful for finding a job. Employers tend to value interpersonal skills and industry knowledge more than cultural background.

  • Sumerian(收集中)

  • Sustainable agriculture

  • Since its inception, the UN system has been working to ensure adequate food for all through sustainable agriculture. The majority of the worlds poorest people live in rural areas of developing countries. They depend on agriculture and related activities for their livelihoods. This makes them particularly vulnerable to man-made and natural influences that reduce agricultural production.

  • T-cells

  • Usually, age is determined by physical characteristics, such as teeth or bones. Great — if you have a body. Researchers have tried unsuccessfully to use blood. But in this study, the scientists used immune cells called T-cells. T-cells recognize invaders through receptors that match molecules on bacteria, viruses, even tumors. The cellular activity that produces these receptors also produces a type of circular DNA molecule as a by-product.

  • Teen Marriage

  • Marriage is a big step in anyone's life and there is an argument to be made against getting married too early. As any newlywed couple knows, there is a huge amount of financial pressure associated with marriage. Firstly, the wedding reception and honeymoon will cost you an arm and a leg. Then there's the matter of home loans, rent and energy bills. If you’re looking to start a family, your child's education is another thing you need to save up for. Teenagers should probably find a proper job before deciding to tie the knot.

  • Television Viewing

  • Parents need to take control of the television viewing of pre-schoolers and children of early school age. A workable technique is to make a simple but firm weekly plan as to what programs will be permitted and how much time overall may be spent in viewing. Any child's weekly schedule normally involves a certain amount of time for school, naps, outdoor play and indoor play. There should not, therefore, be great amounts of unfilled time when the child gravitates towards the TV set.

  • Tesla & Edison

  • Tesla came over from Graz and went to work for Thomas Edison. Nonetheless, Edison offered him a job, promising Tesla fifty thousand dollars if Tesla could redesign Edisons breakdown-prone DC generator designs. The new generator designs were a vast improvement over Edison's originals. Upon completing the job Tesla went to Edison to collect the $50,000 promised for the task. Tesla, Edison replied, you don‘t understand our American humor. And Tesla was never paid.

  • Tests

  • In classes, your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying. The information that they provide will be important to know when you take tests. You must be able to take good written notes from what your teacher say.

  • The border

  • The border itself between, Mexico and United States is fraught with a mix of urban and desert terrain and spans over 1,900 miles. Both the uninhabited areas of the border and urban areas are where the most drug trafficking and illegal crossings take place. Crime is prevalent in urban cities like El Paso, Texas and San Diego, California.

  • The Cup Class Boats

  • At the end of this year, we will launch the cup class boats. So these will be about twice the power. The sailors are down in the cockpits, unlike today. A lot of power is being generated by these four grinders that are providing hydraulic power, and that energy is being used to control the flying surface, the hydrofoil and is also being used to control the wing and the flaps, effectively the engine, of what we have.

  • The Ford Company

  • The Ford Company provides plenty of opportunities for its employees. It guarantees not only comfortable and appropriate working conditions, but also many other advantages. Therefore, becoming a part of the Ford Motor company is always profitable and beneficial. Moreover, it is important to mention that Ford Motors provides its employees with effective and useful services and takes care of their well-being.

  • The responses

  • As far as politics go, the responses are just as varied. Mitigation is common and calls for a reduction of emissions and less reliance on fossil fuels. Coal-burning power plants are now replaced with hydraulic power plants and electric cars are replacing some gasoline efficient cars. Many people, however, feel this is not enough.

  • Thompson

  • "Thompson recognized and exploited all the ingredients of a successful amusement ride," writes Judith A. Adams in The American amusement Park Industry. "His coasters combined an appearance of danger with actual safety, thrilled riders with exhilarating speed, and allowed the public to intimately experience the Industrial Revolution’s new technologies of gears, steel, and dazzling electric lights."

  • To understand the past

  • To understand the past you have to be able, as far as possible, to think as the people in the period you are studying thought. The example of what it must have been like to be a peasant in the Middle Ages is used. However, sensibilities change over time and we can't completely throw off the mentality of the present. Therefore, every age will have a slightly different perspective on the same period of the past, no matter what the facts are.

  • Trade unions

  • Trade unions originated in Europe during the industrial revolution. Because of the machinery that had become commonplace, skilled labor became less in demand so employers had nearly all of the bargaining power. Employers mistreated the workers and paid them too little for the work they did. Trade unions were organized that would help in the improvement of working conditions.

  • Transportation

  • Not a lot is known about how the transportation of goods by water first began. Large cargo boats were being used in some parts of the world up to five thousand years ago. However, sea trade became more widespread when large sailing boats traveled between ports, carrying spices, perfumes, and objects made by hand.

  • Trump

  • Trump has threatened to declare China a currency manipulator, but experts say he has little legal or economic basis to take such a step. He has also threatened to impose a tariff of up to 45 percent on Chinese imports if Beijing doesn't "behave," a move that could lead to a trade war and damage the economies of both nations.

  • Tsunamis

  • The tsunamis could provide crucial information about the habitability of ancient Mars. The first one occurred when the planet must have been relatively warm and amenable for life, because it carved out backwash channels as it returned to the sea. By contrast, the planet had become much cooler by the time the second tsunami hit — the waters apparently flash-froze after flowing onto the surface.

  • Tube-shaped mic-robot

  • Each tube-shaped mic-robot is a sandwich of three materials. A graphene outer layer, which binds to heavy metals. A middle layer of nickel, which gives the bots magnetic polarity, so they can be pulled through wastewater with magnets. And platinum inside for propulsion. Just add a bit of peroxide to the wastewater, and it'll react with the platinum to form water and oxygen bubbles, which can propel the tubes along.

  • Unions

  • Unions take the power out of the employer’s hands on many issues. There are examples of cases where the workers were engaging in sexual or racial harassment, but were protected by their unions and allowed to keep their jobs. Poor workers and excellent workers often receive the same pay and raise, giving no reason for a person to work harder than necessary at their jobs.

  • University

  • A university is not a business. More precisely, a not-for-profit college or university is significantly different than a for profit business. A university has no owners it is a public trust. Without owners, it has no one to pay dividends to, and no one for whom it must maximize its profits. A business has a single overriding goal: the maximization of return for the owners. A university has a multiplicity of goals: to foster learning, to create knowledge, and to serve its community.

  • University V2

  • A university is a lot more than just classes and exams, the university is a concept that offers you a host of possibilities to develop both academically and personally. Find out about the different projects, clubs, and societies that are in your university. You will definitely find something you are interested in.

  • US student debt

  • The numbers on U.S. student debt, after all, are truly staggering. The average 2015 U.S. university graduate who took out loans to help pay for tuition enters the workforce with $35,000 in student debt. In the U.S., total student debt exceeds $1.15 trillion——dwarfing, for instance, the nation's credit card debt.

  • Welfare

  • Welfare has a special political meaning to the United States because it refers to how the poor receives financial aid. In comparison, Welfare services are regarded as a universal right in other regions like Europe, where it is believed that all citizens should be able to obtain a minimal level of social support and well-being.

  • Wild cat

  • In the photo, the wild cat's huge paws are clamped onto the side of the white safari Jeep in which Chappell was a passenger. Almost as tall as the Jeep on her hind legs, she appears to be forcing her muzzle into the back window.

  • Written examinations

  • Written examinations are a fact of life for most high school and university students. However, recent studies have shown that this traditional form of assessment may not be an accurate indicator of academic performance. Tests have shown that many students experience anxiety during exam weeks, which leads to poorer results. As a result, some learning institutions are replacing exams with alternative assessments such as group work and oral presentations.

  • Yellow

  • Yellow is the most optimistic color, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most often in yellow rooms and babies cry more often in them. The reason may be that yellow is the hardest color on the eye. On the other hand, it speeds metabolism and enhances concentration; think of yellow legal pads and post-it notes.

  • Yellow

  • Cheerful sunny yellow is an attention getter. While it is considered an optimistic color, people lose their tempers more often in yellow rooms, and babies will cry more. It is the most difficult color for the eye to take in, so it can be overpowering if overused. Yellow enhances concentration, hence its use for legal pads. It also speeds metabolism.

  • Yellow tulip

  • How do we imagine the unimaginable if we're asked to think of an object say, a yellow tulip a picture immediately forms in our mind's eye? But what if we try to imagine a concept such as the square root of a negative number?

    Infinite variations

    Surprisingly, despite what appear to be infinite variations, all difficult conversations share a common structure. When you're caught up in the details and anxiety of a particularly difficult conversation, this structure is hard to see. But understanding that structure is essential to improving how you handle your most challenging conversations.

    Private equity

    Itisn't rare for private equity houses to hire grads fresh out of businessschool, but 9 times out of 10, the students who nab these jobs are the ones whohad private equity experience under their belt before even starting their MBAprogram.

    The founding fathers

    Thefounding fathers established constitutional protections for the press becausethey understood that leaving the watchdog function to partisan politicianswouldn't necessarily serve the public interest, both sides have too manyincentives to preserve the status quo and ignore problems that elude quickfixes.


    Weakness in electronics, auto and gas station sales dragged down overall retail sales last month, but excluding those three categories, retailers enjoyed healthy increases across the board, according to government figures released Wednesday. Moreover, December sales numbers were also revised higher.

    Side effects

    Where there are effects, there are often side effects. The car is a boon to mobility, but can lead to obesity, deaths and pollution. Burning fossil fuel may keep economies going, but wrecks the climate in the long run. In a similar way, there are side effects to information technology in education settings - from childcare to the classroom to the lecture hall and beyond.


    Exhilarating, exhausting and intense, there are just some of the words used to describe doing an MBA, everyone's experience of doing MBA is, of course, different though denying that it's hard and demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is one of the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be a sustainable benefit against form in one pain.


    The uniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on the world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. But highly labor-intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental life cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keep up with the increasing demand for the product.


    For diplomacy the starting point must be that globalization requires bridges and removes barriers. A policy of containment is a difficult strategy in the age of the fiber-optic cable, the jumbo jet and the satellite dish. There will always be the exception, such as the murderous regime in Iraq where the only safe strategy is to keep it in the isolation ward until it accepts the norms of international behavior. Or the military dictatorship in Burma which has persistently failed to respond to dialogue. It takes two to critically engage.


    Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up without participating in the development like the Reformation that many Russians taking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as a result, the most unusual member of European family, if indeed it is European at all. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russians themselves.

    Book choosing

    This book is no ordinary book, and should not be read through from beginning to end. It contains many different adventures, and the path you take will depend on the choices you make along the way. The success or failure of your mission will hinge on the decisions you make, so think carefully before choosing.

    Japanese tea ceremony

    In Japan, tea ceremony is a ritual-like formalism in which green tea you prepare and serve to multiple guests in a tea full setting. The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many tradition gestures that the server and the guests must perform.

    Japanese tea ceremony V2

    The Japanese tea ceremony is a tour influenced by Buddhism in which green tea is prepared and served to a small group of guests in a peaceful setting. The ceremony can take as long as four hours and there are many traditional gestures that both the server and the guest must perform.


    Inmulti-lingual countries, code-mixing, the use of more than one variety in thesame utterance or sentence and codeswitching, the use of different languages orvarieties between sentences is common and natural. Despite its frequency, orperhaps because of it, some scholars and self-appointed guardians of linguisticmorality, view both code-mixing and code-switching as a sign of linguisticdeficiency.

    Situation of economic

    In his landmark account, first published over twenty years ago, the author argues that the ignorance and lethargy of the poor are direct results of the whole situation of economic, social and political domination. By being kept in a situation in which critical awareness and response are practically impossible the disadvantaged are kept 'submerged'.

    Lenient parents

    Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversation turned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had been very strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister, younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?” she said. "Our parents were very lenient."

    The semiconductor industry

    The semiconductor industry has been able to improve the performance of electric systems for more than four decades by making ever-smaller devices. However, this approach will soon encounter both scientific and technical limits, which is why the industry is exploring a number of alternative device technologies.

    Marketing Management

    For any marketing course that requires the development of a marketing plan, such as Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy and Principles of Marketing, this is the only planning handbook that guides students through step by step creation of a customized marketing plan while offering commercial software to aid in the process.

    Legal writing

    Legal writing is usually less discursive than writing in other humanities subjects, and precision is more important than variety. Sentence structure should not be too complex; it is usually unnecessary to make extensive use of adjectives or adverbs, and consistency of terms is often required.

    Black swans

    Before European explorers had reached Australia, it was believed that all swans were white. Dutch mariner, Antonie Caen, was the first to be amazed at the sight of Australia’s Black swans on the Shark Bay in 1636. Explorer Willem de Vlamingh captured two of these creatures on Australia’s Swan River and returned with them to Europe to prove their existence. From that point on, black swans and Australia have been closely linked. During the nineteenth century, the original Western Australian colony was called "the Swan River Settlement." In 1973, the black swan was officially proclaimed as the "bird emblem" of the Government of Western Australia and now appears on the state flag. Today, the black swan is still found in various wetland habitats in Australia, including the Murray River in the wine growing region South Eastern Australia.

    Mental illness

    A mental illness is a health problem that significantly affects how a person feels, thinks, behaves, and interacts with other people. People who experience mental illnesses and their family and friends suffer a great deal due to these illnesses. According to the World Health Organization, depression will be one of the biggest health problems worldwide by the year 2020.

    Social media

    Socialmedia are playing an increasingly important role as information sources fortravelers. The goal of this study is to investigate the extent to which socialmedia appear in search engine results in the context of travel-relatedsearches. It also provides evidence for challenges faced by traditionalproviders of travel-related information.


    The grid-based infrastructure enables large-scale scientific applications to be run on distributed resources. However, in practice, grid resources are not very easy to use for the end-users who have to learn how to generate security credentials. There is an imminent need to provide transparent access to these resources so that the end-users are shielded from the complicated details.

    Reading aloud

    Scientific studies show that by age three there is a gap in brain development between kids who are read to aloud and those who are not, and children from low-income families are disproportionately impacted by this gap. Making sure all parents know the importance of reading aloud to their children is critical to closing the achievement gap.