【易学PTE】真题鸡精-口语RL(PART 1)(更新日期:2018-11-14)

真题机经-口语Retell Lecture(PART 1)





13 Stages of Brain Development

Stages of Brain development- brain development during childhood, there are three stages, starting from the Primitive brain, limbic brain, and finally to the neocortex. Although interrelated, the three had its own function. Primitive brain functions to manage the physical to survive, manage reflex, motor motion control, monitoring body functions, and process information coming from sensing. limbic brain functioning as a liaison to process emotions and the brain thinks, and the Primitive brain. While the thinking brain, which is the most objective part of the brain, receiving input from the Primitive brain and the limbic brain.

However, he needed more time to process information from the Primitive brain and the limbic brain. The brain thinks the merger is also a place of experience, memory, feeling, and thinking ability to give birth to ideas and actions. Nerve myelination of the brain takes place in sequence, starting from the Primitive brain, the limbic brains, and brain thought. Neural pathways are more frequently used to make more myelin thicken. Increasingly thicker myelin, the faster the nerve impulses or signals travel alone nerves. Therefore, a growing child is encouraged to receive input from the environment in accordance with its development.


The lecture talks about 3 stages of brain development, which are the primitive brain, limbic brain and neocortex. Different sections of the brain have different function and finished development in different times For sensory pathways, including vision and hearing, develop from embryo time, peak at 3 month old, stop at more than 1 year old. For language, develop from embryo time, peak around 9 months old, and stop at more than 1 year old. For higher cognitive function, develop from embryo time, peak at 1 year old and develop for a longer period of time. Moreover, higher level functions, such as logical thinking, based on lower level of development.

2A Great Surgeon


This lecture talked about a great surgeon, whose name is Joseph Lister. The reason why he is well known is because he successfully introduced carbolic acid to sterilize surgical instruments and to clean wounds. This led to a reduction in infections and made surgery safer for patients. In conclusion, people call him the father of modern surgery because his great achievement in medicine.

3A new instrument

The Skoog is a new university accessible musical instrument. It is designed to use by children or adults with special needs or in fact be used by anyone. It's soft, it's easy to play, it's robust and it can be customized to suit anyone's abilities. The Skoog helps students with special needs by allowing them to get involved in making music themselves. It's an instrument that they can play it and they can take ownership of and start creating their own sounds and music. Traditional instruments are the shape and size and made of the materials they are because of the sound that they need to make. If you want to make a sound like a plucked string, you need a string and it needs to be under tension, whereas with a Skoog, because it's a mixture of software and a sensor, then thus the computer can handle making the sound. And so we can design an object that's designed to be touched and designed to be played with. In developing the screen and working with kids in the schools and in the classrooms,it's really helped us make the Skoog something that's usable by the children themselves. They've informed us massively on how it needs to work and they've given their opinions on colors and designs. And just the feedback they've given to us has been just marvelous. It's just so enriching and it's really inspiring to actually work with these kids, particularly when you can provide them with an ability to start to playing their own music as opposed to just taking part through listening and listening to other musicians and really learning from.


A new university invention is helping children who cannot use traditional instruments to make music of their own. It is an object that can be touched and played. It is soft, easy to use, robust and can be customized. Traditional musical instruments are in specific shapes and sizes, and these students cannot play traditional musical instruments because they have difficulties in movements. But this new invention is designed with software and sensors inside, which is connected to computers. The feedback is very positive. It is enriching and inspiring, and children found it usable, and found the color and design attractive.

4A Ship

考场回忆:有一个船的图 看起来就像轮渡那种,如上图,然后就讲现在可以去很远的地方 intelligence帮助人类很多,人们不能忽视,要重视问题。 说civilization就像一艘大船驶向未来,说保护环境刻不容缓 我们不能再 trial and error 这样下去了,地球妈妈不会再给我们机会去这样做了。

5A survey

Let’s say if I’m asking which source do you often use to get information. Newspaper? Radio? TV? And the survey shows 62% of the people chose internet.

You might be thinking I am going to say, how important the internet is, or how quickly it has changed the world for a few year.

But what if I tell you this survey is conducted on the website globalandmail.com? Our answer will be different. Because the people who did this survey on a website must be frequent users of internet. This sample is a biased sample. So we have to pay attention to how a survey is conducted.


回忆1.是说一个survey。有PPT,PPT上给了问题 62% internet 和survey conducted(还是别的单词 c开头 就是在哪里做的)是一个网址 globeandmail.com。整个的大意是 一个类似ted的感觉 一个男的说 有这么一个人survey 问题是 xxx 人们有人选TV radio newspaper 有62%的人选了internet 但是这个survey是在这个xxx网上开展的 这个时候就有笑声 然后speaker说 是bias 还说了一两句 没太听清。点很简单 有PPT 串一下就可以

回忆2.online survey考过,大概就是说一个survey对各种media 进行了投票,使用率还是什么的,发现很多人投internet.but这个结果并不可靠,因为survey是网上做的,所以默认target就是经常上网的人,其他media的人群很少,或者无法参与这个survey。所以,结果并无说服力。

6A Survey with 100 CEO


The lecture mainly talks about a survey with 100 CEO.In the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that the survey is about which area of activity should contribute most effort. He further discussed that the result from the survey is IT, because IT make a huge influence on our society. And it is time consuming and complex. At the end of the lectures, he concluded that other two are marketing of sales and financial management and they are equally important.

7Absolute Zero

回忆1:绝对零度 大概是说科学家为啥要做这个实验 这样做的意义是你并不是得到一个predetermined end 而是发现what udon’t know it exists and this is the beauty that scientists love

回忆2:关于science的, absolute zero, 没太听明白,只说了重点词 scientific research, absolute zero, we are not focus on the goal of the experiment but the results.

8Agricultural fishing(收集中)

9Amory Lovins

Amory Lovins is an American consultant experimental physicist and he has been active at the nexus of energy, resources, economy, environment, development and security in more than 50 countries for over 40 years. He pays attention on energy saving and how to use energy in a more efficient and sustainable way. He built a house with plenty of energy-saving concepts. He's an unusual character with a wide range of knowledge and a genius, but he's not a scientist. He has a consulting company and lives in a house that build on a mountain. For 30 years, he used a lot of ways to save energy and solved problems with technologies that already existed and demonstrate them. Some people think he is so crazy. A female writer wrote a book about him which is called Mr Green.

10Animal behavior

回忆要点:考了一个animal behavior的题目 有视频 听得不好 讲了为什么要研究 animal behavior 为了save them 还提到了一本textbook



回忆要点:1.Aristotle 认为 rhetoric不同于truth 2.rhetoric is body,truth is spirit and soul 3.some ppl不理解truth,because they are rational 4.我们应该use rhetoric 帮助人们 understand truth


Hello, I'm David Brown, curator of Italian and Spanish paintings at the National Gallery of Art. The treasures in our exhibition, The Art of Power, Royal Armor and Portraits from Imperial Spain, come from the royal armory in Madrid. They range from the 15th to the 17th century and include some of the finest examples of renaissance armor in the world. fabricated by master craftsmen and artists, the flower of Spanish royalty. This is parade armor, made for show not combat. In form it looks back to a world tournaments, jousts and noble gesture. And among the images worked into the steel is something quite different, a subtle advertising campaign for the imperial ambitions of the Spanish monarchy and the Hapsburg dynasty. Those who wore it took the words Holy, Roman and Empire very seriously.

Augmented Reality

考场回忆:有一个手机图 片,手机上有个足球。音频讲mobile phone handheld device improve user experience. 1. 3d guidance so you can have a view of where you wanna go. 2. you can have a better gaming experience 图片和音频里的 gaming experience对应,有提到3D 的游戏比2D的好。语速不快。

补充回忆:是关于Augmented reality 讲了对gaming的帮组 可以用实物作为玩游戏方式 还说了可以把2D MAP 变成3D MAP开始开解释了什么事AR。

14Australian city

Australia's location is important for the worlds export, and is international trade is also important. Since Australia has a broad territory, all towns are scattered around. There is a huge expense for transportation for trains and ferries. The government also pays large amount for its telecommunication to build up the connection among regions. The Australian people are mainly living in five cities, and they are Melbourne, Sydney, Perth and Brisbane and so on. The most special one is Perth, which is one of the most isolated city in the world. However, this does not affect its state to be the largest city in Australia Most large companies, like the two leading company, Telstra and Qantas, they are all based in Perth.


This lecture talks about Australia. According to the speaker, he has mentioned some points of view. Australia’s location is important for the world’s export. Its international trade is also important. Since Australia has a broad territory. The Australian people are mainly living in 5 cities which are Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and so on. Perth is one of the most isolated city in the world and there are two leading companies such as Telstra and Qantas which are based in Perth.

15Australian immigration history

The first inhabitants in Australia were the ancestors of the present indigenous people. Whether these first migrations involved one or several successive waves and distinct peoples is still subject to academic debate, as is its timing. The minimum widely accepted time frame places presence of humans in Australia at 40,000 to 43,000 years Before Present, while the upper range supported by others is 60,000 to 70,000 years BP.

In any event, this migration was achieved during the closing stages of the Pleistocene epoch, when sea levels were typically much lower than they are today. Repeated episodes of extended glaciation resulted in decreases of sea levels by some 100150 m. The continental coastline therefore extended much further out into the Timor Sea than it does today, and Australia and New Guinea formed a single landmass (known as Sahul), connected by an extensive land bridge across the Arafura Sea, Gulf of Carpentaria and Torres Strait.

The ancestral Australian Aboriginal peoples were thus long established and continued to develop, diversify and settle through much of the continent. As the sea levels again rose at the terminus of the most recent glacial period some 10,000 years ago the Australian continent once more became a separated landmass. However, the newly formed 150 km wide Torres Strait with its chain of islands still provided the means for cultural contact and trade between New Guinea and the northern Cape York Peninsula.

During the 1970s and 1980s around 120,000 southern Asian refugees migrated to Australia. During that twenty years, Australia first began to adopt a policy of what Minister of Immigration Al Grass by termed "multiculturalism". In 2004-05, Australia accepted 123,000 new settlers,19 a 40% increase over the past 10 years. The largest number of immigrants (40,000 in 200405) moved to Sydney. The majority of immigrants came from Asia, led by China and India.

16Bee talk

Honey bees do a waggle dance to direct other bees to the sources of nectar. The dancing bees like this one can be halted by a headbutt from another bee. Now research has found that this headbutt is actually a warning signal. A feeding station was set up in the lab to mimic a source of nectar, then foraging bees were introduced to the dangers at the station, such as competition from rival colonies. When foragers returned to the hive they stopped bees dancing. Scientists think the behavior warns dancers of a dangerous source of nectar.


Bees perform this strange ritual when they encounter aggressive rival bees, for example, or predatory spiders hanging out at favored foraging spots. When they return to the hive, they headbutt hive mates performing the famous “waggle dance” that directs would-be foragers to rich sources of nectar. By halting their hive mates mid-dance, the scouting bees save them from perilous excursions.

17Bilingual Education

考场回忆:parents should not use two language to educate their children.父母以为用两种语言can benefit children parent use two language to explain and talk about same content, children will get confuse。

18Bilingual Kids(收集中)

19Bird migration(收集中)

20Black Hole

This simulation shows what you might see. If you are orbiting a black hole. The light and position of background stars around the hole are distorted by its gravity and they seem to spin around. On the right the constellation Orion appears to approach the event horizon the boundary from which nothing can escape. Orion stars look like they become separated and get spun around. Once the hole has passed by Orion reappears on the left and looks normal again. Users can also experiment with different scenarios. This is what you might see if you were traveling towards a black hole with rocket engines slowing your descent. Another simulation mimics free fall into a hole. In the middle the light of the entire universe appears to be concentrated in a bright ring.


This video is about the black hole in the universe. From the video, it can be seen that the middle area of the video is totally dark, that is the black hold, and all the planets are spinning around the black hole. On the right side of the video, it can be observed that some planets can't escape from the black hole and are being drawn to it. We can also observe a bright ring around the black hole because that is the edge of the black hole so that the light can escape from it. On the right side of the video, it can be observed that some planets can't escape from the black hole and are being drawn to it. We can also observe a bright ring around the black hole because that is the edge of the black hole so that the light can escape from it.

21Bomb calorimeter

Why does burning a food item provide information about its value as a food? The nutritional value of food can be measured on many different scales. The most basic measurement scale is the free energy content of the food. In other words, how much energy is released when chemical bonds within the food are broken? The energy content of food is measured in calories, the amount of kinetic energy required to raise the temperature of one ml of water, one degree. Food is burned under controlled conditions, breaking chemical bonds and releasing free energy. The burning is chemically similar to the breakdown of food in cellular respiration although the process occurs much more quickly and in a less controlled fashion during ignition. Calorimeter can measure the energy in food, but can not measure the digested energy of what we have.


This lecture is mainly about bomb calorimeter. This equipment can help to measure how much energy contained in food. There will be chemical combustion between the food and oxygen. The water chamber absorbs the heat when food samples are burned. The thermometer measures the increased temperature of the water, and then, we can calculate the energy of the food. The result of this calorimeter is different with the energy that human's body absorb from food because our digestion system cannot absorb all energy from food.

22British policy

Why does burning a food item provide information about its value as a food? The nutritional value of food can be measured on many different scales. The most basic measurement scale is the free energy content of the food. In other words, how much energy is released when chemical bonds within the food are broken? The energy content of food is measured in calories, the amount of kinetic energy required to raise the temperature of one ml of water, one degree. Food is burned under controlled conditions, breaking chemical bonds and releasing free energy. The burning is chemically similar to the breakdown of food in cellular respiration although the process occurs much more quickly and in a less controlled fashion during ignition. Calorimeter can measure the energy in food, but can not measure the digested energy of what we have.


This lecture is mainly about bomb calorimeter. This equipment can help to measure how much energy contained in food. There will be chemical combustion between the food and oxygen. The water chamber absorbs the heat when food samples are burned. The thermometer measures the increased temperature of the water, and then, we can calculate the energy of the food. The result of this calorimeter is different with the energy that human's body absorb from food because our digestion system cannot absorb all energy from food.


The Earth's temperature is rising. And as it does, springtime phenomena—like the first bloom of flowers—are getting earlier and earlier. But rising temperatures aren't the only factor. Urban light pollution is also quickening the coming of spring. "So temperature and light are really contributing to a double whammy of making everything earlier." Richard French-Constant, an entomologist at the University of Exeter. He and his colleagues compiled 13 years of data from citizen scientists in the U.K., who tracked the first bud burst of four common trees. Turns out, light pollution—from streetlights in cities, and along roads—pushed bud burst a full week earlier. Way beyond what rising temperatures could achieve. This disruptive timing can ripple through the ecosystem. "The caterpillars that feed on trees are trying to match the hatching of their eggs to the timing of bud burst. Because the caterpillars want to feed on the juiciest and least chemically protected leaves. And it's not just the caterpillars, of course, that are important. But the knock-on effect is on nesting birds, which are also trying to hatch their chicks at the same time that there's the maximum number of caterpillars." So earlier buds could ultimately affect the survival of birds, and beyond. The findings are in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B. The world's becoming increasingly urbanized, and light pollution is growing—which ffrench-Constant says could trick trees into budding earlier and earlier. But smarter lighting—like LEDs that dial down certain wavelengths—could help. "Perhaps the exciting thing is, if we understand more about how light affects this bud burst, we might be able to devise smarter sort of street lighting that has less red components, and therefore less early bud burst." Thus keeping springtime an actual springtime phenomenon.

25.Changes in Economic Structure


The lecture is mainly about change in economic structure in Europe. In the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that after industrial revolutions, around the beginning of 20th(or 19th century,) the economic structure in Europe changed dramatically. Lots of machinery had been used in manufacturing such as steam engine. Because of this, the circulation of goods and services had become faster and so accumulated more wealth. And this consequently leads to an expansion of middle class population. This again contributed to more accumulation of social wealth.

24Chest X-Ray

This is one picture that you probably you all know what it is when you see it. It's a familiar looking image. It's something that probably we all have some personal experience with, right? This is a chest x-ray that would be taken in your doctor's office, for example, or a radiologist's office. And it is a good example of Biomedical Engineering and that it takes a physical principle, that is how do x-rays interact with the tissues of your body, and it uses that physics, that physical principle to develop a picture of what's inside your body, so to look inside and see things that you couldn't see without this device. And you'll recognize some parts of the image, you can see the ribcage here, the bones you can see the heart is the large bright object down here. If you, have good eyesight from the distance,you can see the vessels leading out of the heart and into the lungs, and the lungs are darker spaces within the ribcage.

考场回忆:屏幕上一张肺部的黑灰x-ray片 This lecture talks about biomedical engineering, the picture of the X-Ray is for doctor and physiologist to study in the office, we can see the position of the lung, bones, rib cages, heart, also the vessel in the heart.

25Childrens' tutors

Community service is an important component of education here at our university.We encourage all students to volunteer for at least one community activity before they graduate. A new community program called "One On One" helps elementary students who've fallen behind. Your education majors might be especially interested in it because it offers the opportunity to do some teaching, that is, tutoring in math and English. You'd have to volunteer two hours a week for one semester. You can choose to help a child with math, English, or both. Half-hour lessons are fine, so you could do a half hour of each subject two days a week. Professor Dodge will act as a mentor to the tutors. He'll be available to help you with lesson plans or to offer suggestions for activities. He has office hours every Tuesday and Thursday afternoon. You can sign up for the program with him and begin the tutoring next week. I'm sure you'll enjoy this community service and you'll gain valuable experience at the same time. It looks good on your resume, too, showing that you've had experience with children and that you care about your community. If you'd like to sign up, or if you have any questions, stop by Professor Dodge's office this week


The Right Honorable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a British statesman, best known as prime minister of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. At various times a soldier, journalist, author, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded as one of the most important leaders in British and world history. Considered reactionary on some issues, such as granting independence to Britain's colonies and at times regarded as a self-promoter who changed political parties to further his career, it was his wartime leadership that earned him iconic status. Some of his peacetime decisions, such as restoring the Gold Standard in 1924, were disastrous as was his World War I decision to land troops on the Dardanelles. However, during 1940, when Britain alone opposed Hitler's Nazi Germany in the free world, his stirring speeches inspired, motivated, and uplifted a whole people during their darkest hour. Churchill saw himself as a champion of democracy against tyranny, and was profoundly aware of his own role and destiny. Indeed, he believed that God had placed him on earth to carry out heroic deeds for the protection of Christian civilization and human progress. A providential understanding of history would concur with Churchill's self-understanding. Considered old-fashioned, even reactionary by some people today, he was actually a visionary whose dream was of a united world, beginning with a union of the English-speaking peoples, then embracing all cultures. In his youth, he cut a dashing figure as a cavalry officer as seen in the 1972 film Young Winston directed by Richard Attenborough, but the images of him that are the most widely remembered are as a rather overweight, determined, even pugnacious looking senior statesman as he is depicted to the right.


This lecture talks about Churchill's contribution to the society. In the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned Churchill was one of the most important leaders in British and world history. He further discuss that during 1940, his stirring speeches inspired a whole people during their darkest hour. At the end of the lecture, the speaker mentioned he was a champion of democracy who supported the protection of Christian civilization and human progress. In conclusion, Churchill is a great leader in the world.

27Civil Society Groups

But in the face of this sense of dis-empowerment, there is surprisingly is no decline in involvement in organizations which seek to share wealth and opportunities, protect one another's rights and work towards the common good. According to the United Nations, civil society groups have grown 40-fold since the turn of last century. Internationally, the non-profit sector is worth one trillion dollars, and there are 700,000 such organizations in Australia alone. The UN recognizes 37,000 specifically civil society organizations across the globe, and gave 3,500 accreditation to the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. This profound movement towards harnessing voices and resources from outside the realm of governments and officialdom reflects a profound growth in NGO's third sector", as some call it. As Robert Putnam discovered in the field of local government in Italy, the best predictor of governmental success was the strength and density of a region's civic associations.


This lecture is about civil society groups. Civil society groups have grown by 40-fold since last century. Nowadays, the non-profit sector is worth 1 trillion dollars, and there are 700 thousand such organizations in Australia. The UN recognizes 37 thousand organizations across the globe. The speaker emphasizes the importance of NGO, which is called “the third sector”.


In the lecture, the speaker talks about the civilization in the universe. The study showed there are 7 stars appear every year. The study also looked at whether all stars are suitable for the development of civilization. The study showed the temperature of some stars are either too cold or too hot. Only about 20% of stars can be considered as suitable for civilization.

29Climate change

Some adverse effects of climate changes to agricultural productions. Some lands are unsuitable for growing crops. There will be millions of people facing hunger in Africa in the near future. Climate change will result in less production and less food. It is difficult for developing countries to deal with climate change due to their financial status and other issues. There are many people living in hunger especially in Africa. The climate change has devastating effects on world economy. The tropical areas on earth are dry and hot, and are originally not suitable for food production. The change of climate leads to extreme weather conditions such as floods and hurricanes, which exacerbates the food production. As a result, it leads to a continuous decline in food supply annually around 10% to 17%. And this trend is perceived to be continuing in the future by 2070. The regions suffering the most will be some African countries.


This lecture talks about the influence of climate change. According to the speaker, he has mentioned some points of view. Climate change will make less production and less food. It is difficult for developing countries to deal with climate change due to their financial status and other issues. There are many people living in hungry, especially in Africa. The climate change will also have negative effects on the world economy.



The lecture talks about the changes in coffee production. Coffee production has increased from 6 billion to 10 billion during past 10 years. US and Germany help Vietnam to establish coffee industry. The huge demand of Europe and America has made Vietnam the second biggest producer. It greatly affected Columbia's production. The output of Central America drastically decreased. People's drinking habit changing and the population growth also have great impact on coffee industry.

32Cognitive memory(收集中)


考试回忆:到超市买食品的时候, 产品包装袋上会有不同颜色的标志, 代表不同健康程度, 大概是绿色, 橙色, 红色。这样的表示对消费者和生产者都有好处;给了一个图有红色黄色绿色三个点点,录音是讲的我们应该对食物所包含的营养进行颜色的划分, 这样当我们觉得自己缺少什么食物的时候就知道应该去吃哪种颜色的;另外retailer也应该把颜色标签打在食物上, 这样方便消费者购买他们所需要的食物.

34Community Service Worker

考场回忆:Ppt上有三点. basic advice and counselling skills. quarterly meetings. seminar gourps. india workers 只是在ppt的第二点 提到 最后说 seminar groups are not suitable for particular groups.

The lecture talks about Community Service Worker in India. And diseases, such as HIV, are difficult to control. Training is essential for workers to understand the precaution knowledge and prevent disease from spreading. These trainings will be provided by big hospitals and professionals. The regular meetings will be held to follow up. Large workshops and seminars are not necessary in some cities.

35Dark Energy

The lecture is about dark energy. Dark energy is an unknown form of energy, which is hypothesized to permeate all of space and accelerate universal expansion. Dark energy constitutes most of total energy in observable universe though its density is low. Two proposed forms of dark energy are cosmological constant and inconstant scalar fields. A field similar to dark energy that could inflate early universe is called big bang.


Dimensions can be defined as the number of space or variables used to describe events. One dimension refers to one variable, which means longitude. Two dimensions contain two variables: namely, longitude plus latitude. Three dimensions contains 3 variables: longitude, latitude and altitude. Four dimensions include the above-mentioned variables and time. We can use these dimensions to represent every event. however, we seldom use 4 dimensions.

37Dog and sound

When this dog approaches some food, another dogs playful snarls are played back the dog seems curious, but the sound doesn't stop it from taking the bone. Here a dog hears the growls of a dog being approached by a stranger, but these don't deter it from grabbing the bone either. In another scenario the sound of a dog protecting its food is played back. This time the dog backs off. These experiments suggest the dogs can distinguish between different types of growls.


The lecture introduces an experiment showing that dogs use different barks and growls to communicate different things. Researchers recorded an "alone bark", a stranger growl where a dog was growling at the approach of a stranger, and a "food growl" where a dog was growling to protect its food. The researchers played these different growls to a dog who was approaching a plate of juicy food. The dogs were more hesitant to approach if they heard the food growl rather than the stranger growl or the alone barks. The experiment shows that dogs could clearly distinguish between different types of growls, and react to the accordingly.

38Earth's Last Climate Shift

This lecture talks about the earth's last climate shift. Climate is defined as consistent pattern of weather over the significant periods of time. Changes when energy balance of the earth is disturbed. He said the system is complex. It would involve several different mechanisms operating at the same time. One example is mentioned that when volcano’s erupt, they disperse particles into upper atmosphere and cools the earth's surface.

39Eating behavior(收集中)

40Economic Development

This lecture is about the economic development in Latin America. Over the past 20 years, the economic development in Latin America grew by 80%. After the globalization and reform, the growth slowed down from 80% to 10%. The economic growth after reform has become unsustainable. Some people start to consider if the reform is positive or not.

41Edmund Wilson

And I want to say that Wilson who died over 30 years ago, began his career before modern lit was taught and analyzed in the universities, as he said at one time and I think a piece about Christian golfs Gauss's I called him Gauss as my father in his generation at Princeton a year or two after Wilson called him. When Wilson was studying there that the latest daring writers to get into the curriculum were widths of the 90s and maybe Gauss had his reputation as a bohemian romantic because he had known Oscar in Paris, but there was no modern lit. Wilson came then from a different world and he became the focal point of a broad mainstream American culture that thought that modern literature and wanted modern literature to be able to be read and appreciated by ordinary people, they were not modernists in an abstract sense and certainly some of them like TS Eliot and Faulkner were too difficult for some of their writings to be read by ordinary people, but this was a world before the division between the brows or between a lead or whatever had established itself as part of our consciousness.

考场回忆:一个叫 Edmund Wilson 的人在美国文学中的地位, American culture, 他是个批评家和文学家, 做了见什么事,然后影响到现在的 America study Edmund Wilson(May 8, 1895 June 12, 1972) was an American writer and critic who notably explored reudian and Marxist themes. He influenced many American authors, including F. Scott Fitzgerald, whose unfinished work he edited for publication. His scheme for a Library of America series of national classic works came to fruition through the efforts of Jason Epstein after Wilson's death.


In the lecture, the speaker talks about Einstein. In the past people believed that universe was absolutely fixed and unchanged. This has been transformed by Einstein's concept of transformation (relative theory) Einstein said the universe is continuous dynamical change, is changing all the time. However, Einstein is not the first person who proposed this theory.



题目有四幅小图, 第一幅是一个受伤的手,最后一张图是人躺着做 CT。 音频分3个阶段。工程师发明设备understandthemselves.

设备变得更加complicated, 为了治愈疾病, 帮助cure wound和研究physiology. ECG (electrocardiography)可以研究心跳节律.设备更复杂, 可以研究脑电波.

The first group of people that realize we can learn form ourselves is Engineers. They invented machines to study human body, based on the studies, they created more complex machines. By using those complex machines, they understand how human brains function and process And they use what they've studied to to benefit humans and solve problems, such as disease, etc.

44English Language

考场回忆:那個主要是說 it is clear that english is changing rapidly They can not change the entire English language but they can standardize the spelling 而且we absorb new word from internet, broadcasting 最後有提到一些學者講英文at slow rate why can’t we changed it because it has some standardized spelling and universal educational format. So it’s very hard to change entire language. Secondly, there is variety in English language from number of villages and regions so it’s wise to have a universal one.

45English Population

考场回忆:一张关于UK 和 Scotland 的 population的表, London X,000,000, Wales X,000,000, Scotland X,000,000, British X,000,000 London 有配一个表格, 上面有Scotland, Wales, London, UK 具体的人口, 音频也读了这些数据. 一开始说London的人口差不 多7m, 等于Wales跟Scotland的人口之和, 分别说了一下三个城市的人口数.然后说大部分英国人都住在伦敦 其他国家人口就比较分散, 每几个在英国的人生活在伦敦, 所以管理London比管理其它两个城市要困难, 主要是因为英国没有一个National party.还提到了用national party管理这些城市里的人, 然后结尾一句很长的话.

46Eukaryotic Cell and Prokaryotic Cell

The basis of all life on Earth is the cell. All creatures on Earth are made of cells. I am not going to dwell on the biology of cells and much it is not that relevant. But I do want to point out a few things. First of all, there are 2 sorts of cells. As we think all the prokaryotic cell, which is fairly simple and it is the thing that all bacteria are made of. And then we have a eukaryotic cell, much more complicated beasts on the right, which did not appear until well into the history of the biosphere on earth. And there are many single-celled eukaryotes. But there are also and importantly multicellular organisms and all of those are based on the eukaryotic cell.


This lecture talks about eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Eukaryotes have special membrane-bound compartments called organelles, which do not exist in prokaryotes. Eukaryotes can be single-celled or multi-celled. Cells are huge in comparison to bacteria. The biggest difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is whether there is a nucleus.


Essence of business entity is exchange;Exchange goods to other goods;Goal of marketing, transfer products from suppliers to consumers, meet the demands of customers; Capital gain is important, because only if by making profits, company would reinvest and produce more

48Export Business

考场回忆:讲澳洲对日本、美国、中国近几十年来的出口业务,以及澳大利亚应该怎么趁亚洲这个好势头促进自己的出口业, 日本中国美英对澳出口的变化从1985到现在.

The lecture talks about China, japan, US's export business. In the past, Australia was concerned about its geographical location, which may result in Australia being isolated from North America, UK, and later America. Nevertheless, nowadays with the rise of Asian countries, especially China, Australia has become a great export country with a perfect location. Currently, Japan is the largest exporting country to Australia, but China may become the largest one in the future. Australia should take the advantage of China's raise to develop its exports.

51.Factors of Animal Survive and Reproduce

In this lecture, the speaker talks about the factors of animal survive and reproduce, which include temperature tolerance, body size, behavior and altitude they live. For example, animals will die if put into a fridge. This shows the importance of seasons and climates to animal survival. Some species even migrate to find suitable habitats for different climate and season. Climate and season are vital factors for animal survival.

49Fire safety(收集中)


51Galaxy Darkness

Our friends at the Highlands Museum and Discovery Center in Ashland, Kentucky, asked a very good question. Why is it dark in space?

That question is not as simple as it may sound. You might think that space appears dark at night because that is when our side of Earth faces away from the sun as our planet rotates on its axis every 24 hours. But what about all those other far away suns that appear as stars in the night sky? Our own Milky Way galaxy contains over 200 billion stars, and the entire universe contains over 100 billion galaxies. You might suppose that many stars would light the night like daytime.

Until the 20th century, astronomers didn't think it was even possible to count all the stars in the universe. Theythought the universe went on forever. In other words, they thought the universe was infinite.

Besides being very hard to imagine, the trouble with an infinite universe is that no matter where you look in the night sky, you should see a star. Stars should overlap each other in the sky like tree trunks in the middle of a very thick forest. But, if this were the case, the sky would be blazing with light. The problem greatly troubled astronomers and became known as Olbers paradox. A paradox is a statement that seems to disagree with itself.

So, to try and explain the paradox, some 19th century scientists thought that dust clouds between the stars must be absorbing a lot of the starlight so it wouldn't shine through to us. But later scientists realized that the dust itself would absorb so much energy from the starlight that eventually it would glow as hot and bright as the stars themselves.

Astronomers now realize that the universe is not infinite. A finite universe --- that is, a universe of limited size --- even one with trillions and trillions of stars, just wouldn't have enough stars to light up all of space. Although the idea of a finite universe explains why Earths sky is dark at night, other causes work to make it even darker.


This lecture talked about the darkness between galaxies. A picture from NASA explains the darkness. This picture is copyright free and can be found on newspapers, magazines and on the Internet. According to the lecturer, gaps between galaxies are not dark. The reason why we cannot see it is because our eyes are not able to detect the infrared light. To conclude, the darkness between galaxies still remain mysterious to us.

52Gene and DNA

In this lecture, the speaker talked about the gene and DNA. At the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that genes decide the protein in the cells. He further mentioned that there are more than 2M proteins in a cell. At the end of the lecture, the speaker concluded that there is still not result for the functions of different cells.

53Government Blogging

We normally see blogging as a two-way interaction, in which the blogger creates the content and the readers interact or challenge the author. But the case will be much difficult when it comes to government, such as the White House. Because people will become more coarse and rude online, especially in the comment area. Hence the governor blog may go wild and chaotic. So the government will have to administrate the comment. Once the government starts administrating the comment, citizens may find the government manipulating what should be said and what should be shown, which contradicts the original intention.


(With graph on the screen demonstrating the whole speech). The lecture mainly talks about the use of web2.0 on helping government functions better and serve the public better. There are three steps, The web collect information from users. Two government use the info to understand the public. Make better connection with citizens and response to their needs. Government can use the information to understand the public and improve government service, making better connection with citizens and response to their needs.


A mild form of hallucination is known as a disturbance, and can occur in most of the senses above. These may be things like seeing movement in peripheral vision, or hearing faint noises and or voices. auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia. They may be benevolent (telling the subject good things about themselves) or malicious, cursing the subject etc. auditory hallucinations of the malicious type are frequently heard, for example people talking about the subject behind his or her back. Like auditory hallucinations, the source of the visual counterpart can also be behind the subject's back. Their visual counterpart is the feeling of being looked or stared at, usually with malicious intent. Frequently, auditory hallucinations and their visual counterpart are experienced by the subject together


The lecture discusses hallucination’s impact on human. Mild hallucinations are known as disturbance and it can occur in most senses. For example, hearing or seeing falsely. Auditory hallucinations are very common in schizophrenia and they can be benevolent or malicious. Visual hallucinations are usually with malicious intent, such as feeling being looked or stared at. Auditory and their visual counterpart are often experienced by the subject together.


回忆1.一个是gross national happiness. 有图,是一本书的封面,写的是happiness, government and politics. 一开始讲gross national happiness, many countries start to measure using this index, 很interesting, 列举了几个国家,China,France, 说政府和政策应该考虑这个指标啥的,记得不是很清楚

回忆2.考到这个happiness 和policy,显示example 关于中国和印度政府有些政策应该要考虑 ppl的happiness,然后说澳大利亚和法国在这方面做得比较好,大概听到这些


主旨是 happiness comes from frequency and quality of social relation. 1. the higher the frequency, more happiness relations include friends and family and others. 2. it's not sure why social relation is correlated with happiness. 3. but there's evidence that when people feel more satisfied with their social relations, they will feel happier, in turn, when people feel happier, they will get more satisfied with social relations.

补充回忆:Happy people tend to be social more with friends and have more interaction between family. Some people wonder if their social activities make them happier or their happy personalities drive them to be social more with their friends and families.

58Haussmann's renovation of Paris

Haussmann's renovation of Paris was a vast public works program commissioned by Emperor Napoleon III and directed by his prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugene Haussmann, between 1853 and 1870. It included the demolition of crowded and unhealthy medieval neighborhoods, the building of wide avenues, parks and squares, the an nexation of the suburbs surrounding Paris, and the construction of new sewers, fountains and aqueducts. Haussmann's work met with fierce opposition, and he was finally dismissed by Napoleon III in 1870. but work on his projects continued until 1927. The street plan and distinctive appearance of the center of Paris today is largely the result of Haussmann's renovation.

In the middle of the nineteenth century, the center of Paris was overcrowded, dark, dangerous, and unhealthy. In 1845 the French social reformer Victor Considerate wrote"Paris is an immense workshop of putrefaction, where misery, pestilence and sickness work in concert, where sunlight and air rarely penetrate. Paris is a terrible place where plants shrivel and perish, and where, of seven small infants, four die during the course of the year. The street plan on the Tie de la Cite and in the neighborhood called the "quartier des Arcis, between the Louvre and the "Hotel de Ville (City Hall), had changed little since the Middle Ages. The population density in these neighborhoods was extremely high, compared with the rest of Paris. in the neighborhood of the Champs EIysees, there was one resident for every 186 square meters. in the neighborhoods of Arc is and Saint- Avoye, in the present Third Arron dissement, there was one inhabitant for every three square meters. In 1840, a doctor described one building in the tie de la Cite where a single room five meters squares on the fourth floor was occupied by twenty-three people, both adults and children. In these conditions, disease spread very quickly. Cholera epidemics ravaged the city in 1832 and 1848. In the epidemic of 1848, five percent of the inhabitants of these two neighborhoods died. Traffic circulation was another major problem. The widest streets in these two neighborhoods were only five meters wide. the narrowest were only one or two meters wide. Wagons, carriages and carts could barely move through the streets. The center of the city was also a cradle of discontent and revolution. between 1830 and 1848, seven armed uprisings and revolts had broken out in the centre of Paris, particularly along the Faubourg Saint-Antoine, around the Hotel de Vi Ile, and around Montagne Sainte-Genevive on the left bank. The residents of these neighborhoods had taken up paving stones and blocked the narrow streets with barricades, and had to be dislodged by the army.


This lecture mainly talks about the renovation of Paris in 1890s. Napoleon the third saw the old Paris was the evil Paris, so he decided to reconstruct it. The renovation was vast public program commissioned by Napoleon the third and directed by Haussmann. Napoleon the third instructed Haussmann to bring air and light to the center of Paris and to drain the sewages. Napoleon also asked Haussmann to plant more trees, build roads and to make the city cleaner and safer. The reason for doing this was that the old Paris had many serious problems such as overcrowding, diseases and crimes.

59Hazardous chemical product

回忆要点:考了一个新题是关于hazardous chemical product的 - 画面会有一罐pesticide的正反面图片,因为是用pesticide来举例的,罐子正面是一片草地的图片(实在没话说就介绍一下咯),反面是化学产品都有的warning label。 - 主要是说warning label设计的不太合理,字体好小了,其实很多人都看不清使用注意事项会导致危险。60%的人看不清楚xx字号大小(好像是10)以下的 - 40%的美国人是illiterate,他们看不懂因此也会没有注意到这些产品的危险

60Hearing loss


回忆1.scope, hope soap都有op的音 人们根据你的lip也可以猜出来你在说什么即使没人有听你讲 后面想不起来了不太难

回忆2.most people believe they have a good hearing, but it is important for individuals to do hearing test regularly, and they should do the test under the specialist (最后一句是说要在专业的耳朵专家那里做,但那个单词不会读, 就specialist 了)

回忆3.视频,开头第一句就说Hearing loss is the high frequency loss. 举例解释Scope hope等词. 你能听到op的音 但是听不到p f等轻的音。然后讲listening和hearing是不同的。最后问how often you need to check hearing? 建议是去audiologist那里做hearing test

61How a person learns a new skill

The Four Levels of Learning describe how a person learns a new skill. Unconscious Incompetence, you don't know that you don't know something. Conscious Incompetence, you are now aware that you can't do the skill. Conscious Competence, you develop a skill in that area but have to think about it. Unconscious Competence, you are good at it and it now comes naturally.

62Human behavior

determinant, human behavior is affected by internal and external factors. At the end of lecture, the speaker mentioned that psychologists are interested in explaining human behavior. determinant is influenced by two factors, the personal factors which are internal and the environmental factors which are external. The personal factors include people’s belief on certain things and their individual thinking about it, while the environmental factors include temperature, air pressure and the others’ thinking about them. In conclusion, one’s determinant are affected by both himself and the environment.说决定因素有两种, 内在和外在, personal和environment, 内在的有你的thought, belief, idea, 外在的包括天气raining, 甚至包括你周围有什么人, 最后一句又点题了, 说决定因素有两种, 内在外在


This lecture talks about human behavior. According to the speaker, he has mentioned some points of view. There are so many psychologists are interested in explaining that human behavior. The internal are external factors can affect the human behavior. The personal factors are internal and the environmental factors are external. The personal factors include people’s belief and their individual thinking. The environmental factors include temperature, air pressure and other’s thinking about him. In conclusion, human behavior are determined by himself and environment.

63Human's Creativity

Here are three important factors in creativity: people, process and product. The most important one is the process.First you have to create the right person through education with a creative mind. Second, you have to create the right process to have people engaged in innovation process. Third, you need to find the right problem to work on. Human beings can survive and prosper largely depending on the creativity they have. If you identify and assess the creativity of a finished product, it is taken as a proxy for the creativity of the person who produced such a product. Therefore, a creative product should be surprising, original, beautiful and useful. People should have factors necessary for genius, ability, and right mindset. You should improve to imitate and change insight look from new perspectives, innovatively create something with imagination to expand conceptual spaces.

考场回忆:creativity , 3个要素 person process product 其中 process 最重要. Have 3 stages, create person, create process and create product. Human beings can survive because their creativity. The lecture talks about human's creativity. In the beginning of the lecture the speaker mentions that there are 3 elements, including creative person, creative process and creative product. Of the most the importance is process. At the end of the lecture, the speaker concludes that human beings can survive because their creativity.

64Increasing Productivity

With a line graph shown on the screen: the dropping cost of computer parts. The lecture mainly talks about the increasing productivity, which means for every input there are more output. To illustrate the theory, the speaker talks about computer. It is a relatively new thing, so the cost of units decreases even more.

65Interval training

1) Interval training is that you work out in a way that alternate periods of high-intensity exercise with low-intensity recovery periods, which means you do the excise at 20-meter speed, and then at 30-meter speed. 2) Interval training has been often used for athletes and their sports. 3) Interval training can accelerate cardio and aerobic excises.

66Infinite Monkey Theory

The infinite monkey theorem states that a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter keyboard for an infinite amount of time will almost surely type a given text, such as the complete works of William Shakespeare. In this context, "almost surely" is a mathematical term with a precise meaning, and the "monkey" isn't an actual monkey, but a metaphor for an abstract device that produces a random sequence of letters ad infinitum. The theorem illustrates the perils of reasoning about infinity by imagining a vast but finite number, and vice versa. The probability of a monkey exactly typing a complete work such as Shakespeare's Hamlet is so tiny that the chance of it occurring during a period of time of the order of the age of the universe is minuscule, but not zero. But technologies can help monkeys to write. If the monkeys are given a pen and some papers to spell the word monkey, they can only scratch on the paper. By contrast, if they are given a typewriter, it will take them over 10 years to produce the right spelling. However, if they can use computer programing, they can finish the task within a day.


In this lecture the speaker talks about infinite monkey theorem. According to the speaker she mentions that on a keyboard, a monkey will almost surely type a given text such as the complete works of William Shakespeare. She indicates that it is a metaphor for an abstract device that produces a random sequence. She suggests that if they are given a pen and some papers they can only scratch on the paper. This lecture talks about infinite monkey theorem and the benefits of technology.


The sound of a cracking knee isn't particularly pleasant. But it gets worse when you listen up close. knee-cracking recording "It does for most people. But for me, it actually just makes me excited." Omer Inan, an electrical engineer at Georgia Tech. "I actually feel like there's some real information in them that can be exploited for the purposes of helping people with rehab." Inan's experience with cracking knees goes back to his days as an undergrad at Stanford, where he threw discus. "If I had a really hard workout, then the next day, of course, I'd be sore, but I'd also sometimes feel this catching or popping or creaking every now and then in my knee." A few years later, he found himself building tiny microphones at a high-end audio company. So when he got to Georgia Tech and heard the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA, wanted better tech for knee injuries, he thought: knee-cracking recording Why not strap tiny microphones to people's knees, to eavesdrop as their legs bend? "What we think it is, is the cartilage and bone rubbing against each other, the surfaces inside the knee rubbing against each other, during those movements." He and a team of physiologists and engineers built a prototype with stretchy athletic tape and a few tiny mics and skin sensors. And preliminary tests on athletes suggest the squishy sounds the device picks up are more erratic, and more irregular, in an injured knee than in a healthy one. Which Inan says might allow patients and doctors to track healing after surgery. Details appear in the IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. "The primary application we're targeting at first is to give people a decision aid during rehabilitation, following an acute knee injury, to help them understand when they can perform particular activities, and when they can move to different intensities of particular activities." A useful thing to take a crack at.

68Language Disorder

回忆1.一张图配文字language disorder in the uk。内容一丁点想不起来了,等大神补充吧

回忆2.考了,巨长,所以有很多点可以记,图上 就是有个10%,图下面一句话“language disorder in UK”,一开始讲了language disorder这个现象(我把这句话和图的内容 一起讲了),然后说这是一种children's disability,中间说我们不能take it for granted.后面说We need to ask some questions about language: what is language? how can it be learned

69Language extinction

This lecture talks about language extinction. Many languages are disappearing at a rate that was never seen before in history. Urbanization is the main reason Because the people who speak small languages are moving to urban areas, which are not suitable for small languages to survive. These people have to speak global languages due to pressure. There is an increasing trend of small languages’ extinction recently.

70Language Learning

The lecture talks about the differences between language learning and other cognitive skills’ learning. The use of language is universal and all developing children learn to speak as least one language, even more than one. Not everyone becomes proficient at other cognitive skills, such as mathematical reasoning, painting or carrying a tune. The universal use of language makes it capable of learning simply. Language is one of the most complex human cognitive skills.



But when we move into working with communities, we have to recognize that the communities have to be the authority in their language. Actually a woman in the class I’m teaching at Sydney at the moment, a career woman, expressed this very nicely, although she was talking about something else, she was distinguishing expertise from authority. And certainly linguists because of our training we do have expertise in certain very narrow areas of language, but we don’t have the authority over what to do with that knowledge or what to do with other knowledge that the community produces. I guess for me the bottom line is languages are lost because of the dominance of one people over another. That’s not rocket science, it’s not hard to work that out. But then what that means is if in working with language revival we continue to hold the authority, we actually haven’t done anything towards undoing how languages are lost in the first place, so in a sense the languages are still lost if the authority is still lost.


74Loggerhead Turtles

回忆1: Short head turtle 迁徙图在east coast of USA(有地图)还介绍了一下这个龟很别致,头大脖子短, 在美国快灭绝啦。

回忆2: 两张图,海龟是一种濒危物种,科学家在一只海龟背上绑上仪器跟踪,观测海龟冬天在海里迁徙的路线,记录某个路线,有个美国海岸地图,有路线标记和年份。

回忆3: 蓝色的短脖子的龟, 在美国快要灭绝了,科学家在一只龟上做实验,大概在1986年9月,了解它们是从佛罗里达州往北迁徙,大约三个月左右的时间,有地图,给了一个迁徙的方向。

回忆4: This is one of the largest turtles in the world. People use satellites to locate and track the migration route of those turtle. The turtles reach difference localities in different time, the rough route is from South to North.


The research conducted on the Mars the indicates the prior existence of liquid water. The evidence is that researchers found several elements which are essential to form water, such as calcium carbonate, salt, mineral, and perchlorate. Consequently, we can speculate that there used to be water existed on Mars as liquid form and Mars may be a hospitable planet long time ago.

76Marshmallow test

They call it the marshmallow test. A four to six year old child sits alone in a room at a table facing a marshmallow on a plate. The child is told: "If you dont eat this treat for 15 minutes you can have both it and a second one. Kids on average wait for five or six minutes before eating the marshmallow. The longer a child can resist the treat has been correlated with higher general competency later in life. Now a study shows that ability to resist temptation isn't strictly innate it also highly influenced by environment. Researchers gave five year old used crayons and one sticker to decorate a sheet of paper. One group was promised a new set of art supplies for the project but than never received it. But the other group did receive new crayons and better stickers. Then both groups were given the marshmallow test. The children who had been lied to waited for a mean time of three minutes before eating the marshmallow. The group that got their promised materials resisted an average of 12 minutes. Thus, the researchers note that experience factors into a child's ability to delay gratification. When previous promises have been hollow, why believe the next one?

The lecture discusses ability of resisting temptation. The marshmallow experiment shows that the longer time a child resist the treat, the higher competitive he or she will be later in life. A study shows that the ability isn’t strictly innate but highly influenced by environment. From controlled experiments, the group had been denied for prizes as promised resisted the treat on the following marshmallow experiment for less time than the group prized. If pervious promise was denied, the ability of resisting temptation got hampered later.


回忆1.是说IBA (忘记具体是什么了),所有 product必须通过这个检验才能进入 market。

回忆2.楼上说的IBA是standard那个吧。分为强制的和可选的。有些manufacturers必须强制 性通过才可以投放market。原因有很多, 其中一个是safety issue,举例是matchbox

78Medical Machines

回忆1: (With a picture of different medical machines, wounded hand stitched by medical thread) 讲人们使用我们周围的materials to make life better.

回忆2: 考到一个 RL 讲人类设计了simple machine to understand themselves and improve our health., 后来这些 machine 越来越复杂,可以帮助人类,甚至延长寿命,有些 machine 可以使得不用开刀就可以观察到人体内。后来人们build machine用于治疗, 比如缝合伤口之类的. 后来人们制造complicated machine to understand the inside of human body. Then when life expectancy increases, we have more time to study and invent more complicated machine, and further increase quality of life. E.g. machine to scan and monitor brain activities.

79Mega Cities’ Impact

The lecture is about mega cities’ impact. Global population has increased by 4 folds, from 1.5 billion in 1900 to 6 billion in 2000. While resource consumption has increased more significantly by 16 folds over the century. Due to urbanization, cities, which only account for 2% of the land, have 50% of the total population and consume 75% of the resources. People not only use every resource but also produce tons of wastes.


I'm just going to take on the stuff where left off. The hormone I want to now talk about it's called melatonin. The synthesis is in the Pineal Gland, which is very small. It is the size of a pea in your brain. The corpus is the site of the soul, and it is where melatonin is made. And it has a rhythm as well. And in the sense, it is the opposite of the cortisol. It peaks at night. We call it as the darkness hormone. In every species that we studied, melatonin occurs at night. And it's hormone that prepares you for the things, that your species, does at night. So, of course, in humans we sleep, but animals, like rodents, they are awake. It's hormone that is related to darkness behavior.

81Metal and Heat

This lecture talks about metal and heat. According to the speaker, he was mentioned some points of view. People used to think that metal should blend under that heat. But sometimes it does not behave so because atoms in the metal have random processes. The heat can accelerate the processes but will not change the essence of random, so it could violate what we used to think.


Migration has double the economy People from developing countries can work in developed country, make them richer For example, immigration live in this country, buy products , newspaper, start business and sent their children to school.

83Morton Prince

The powerful influence of Stevenson's text on the discourse of dissociation is strikingly apparent in the work of American physician and psychologist Morton Prince. Rieber credits Prince with pioneering the phenomenon of popularizing MPD as embodied in a spectacular case. Princes dissociation of a Personality (1905) tells the story of Miss Christine Beau-champ, a pseudonym for Clara Norton Fowler, who, according to Prince, is a person in whom several personalities have become developed.

Morton Prince 一名psychology¸ 然后讲了很多次人名Christine Beauchamp,最后很快的讲了B1, B2, B3. 指的是 Christine 被诊断为多重人格,应该分别人B1, B2, B3.一个重要案例叫什么Christine有三个人格,下面我说的鸡精没有, 三个人格间有hidden memory的现象,有举例 人格如果叫b1,b2,b3。 b1 不知道b2,3的存在。b2知道b1 不知道b3 。b3 知道b1,2的存在,后面还设计说什么crime investigation 没太听懂这个rl是配图的,一个人的肖像画,但是和文章无关。其实是讲的那个人的一本书,是best seller,然后介绍里面的主人公,有人格分裂,具体有哪些症状,然后将了分类b1,b2,b3,其中,b2了解b1,b1什么都不了解,b3了解b2,b1,最后b1什么都不了解。那个主人公就属于b2 lecture最后讲了B1,B2,B3中最强的personality account for the most of time and it will takeover the others and become the main personality at the end.



The comics I show you with lots of people chatting around in a room is a form of description. We use different kinds of methods to describe a situation. Sometimes we have to use visual description, particularly when we do not witness the scenario. I was born during the Second World War and my hometown is X, for example when I asked my mother about the war, I always ask her you have mentioned this or that when you talked to me when asked her about the shelter, I asked her what the shelter looks like and when did you go to the shelter. From her response I could get more visual evidence as I can to write my book. 有图,一张黑白照片,关于世界战争的有个人描述她妈妈在照片里正在写信。 我们要描述一个事件或是当时的生活状况的时候要做到 visional, 会 draw narratives

86Natural Reserve


1.natural reserve (还是resource忘记了)。说三分之一的natural reserve被破坏了 since last 3 decades。 还说如果都像Australia一样consume natural reserve的话整个世界就都不好了。大概这意思

2.说人类的平均寿命增长了很多,过去三十年三分之一的土地被破坏,人类使用的能源比地球在可持续发展的水准上能产出的水平多百分之二十,各个国家应该记录它们的carbon footprint,过去寿命超过65岁的人口是百分之多少,现在是多少,2030是多少,美国是多少,德国是多少(数字不记得了),然后在20XX年,人类需要two extra planets满足需求。


这个是UNESCO的一个network In 2008, Melbourne joined the UNESCO Creative Cities Network Melbourne has breadth, depth and vibrancy of the city's literary culture. Melbourne supports a diverse range of writers, a prosperous publishing industry, a successful culture of independent bookselling, a wide variety of literary organisations and a healthy culture of reading and engagement in events and festivals.


说到很多 news 对人的影响,提到了 The assumption is that the public does not aware of it, 整体应该是讲媒体与大众。说people更愿意知道more international news. News are informative but sometimes misleading

89NON-Governmental Organization (NGO)

A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business. Usually set up by ordinary citizens, NGOs may be funded by governments, foundations, businesses, or private persons. Some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. The number of NGOs in the United States is estimated at 1.5 million. Russia has 277,000 NGOs. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centers in India. NGOs are difficult to define, and the term 'NGO' is rarely used consistently. As a result, there are many different classifications in use. The most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation".


An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include human rights, environmental, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, regional, national, or international.

90Open Border

I believe our borders should be open. But if that is not politically acceptable for now, Europe should at least open up a legal route for people from developing countries to come work here. Over time, hopefully, we can move to a position where borders are completely open. Persuading sceptic won't be easy. That's why I think the argument for free migration has to be made at several levels, a principled case, it increases freedom and reduces injustice. A humanitarian case, it helps people much poorer than ourselves. an economic case, it makes us richer. and a pragmatic case, it is inevitable, so it is in everyone's interests to make the best of it. Freedom of movement is not just a matter of human rights and international solidarity. it is in our self-interest. Opening our borders may seem unrealistic. But so too, once, did abolishing slavery or giving women the vote. Campaigning for people's right to move freely is a noble cause for our time.


每一个原因都在表格里列出了, 可以照着读,Developed countries should open borders for other countries. There are two important factors in economy and in humanity for opening borders. Economically, people from developing countries can go to developed countries and work there, they can help to develop countries get richer. Also, for humanity reason, it will allow more freedom for poor people in developing countries.

91Oracle cloud system(收集中)

92Overweight problem

This lecture talks about the overweight problem. According to the speaker, he has mentioned some points of view. There are 20% of children today have the overweight problems, which bring the heart diseases are more and more common in children, the smallest is 5 years old. This situation makes the heart attack and other health problems become earlier and earlier. This issue needs to be solved because the overweight problems will be in more serious situations such as diabetes type 2 and blindness.

93Pavlov Experiment

一个图上面分三个步骤, 和一条狗, 讲的是巴甫洛夫(Pavlov)实验, 关于狗的一个实 验, 图上有大 title, 有狗, 狗的饭盆, 貌似还有铃铛, 给狗狗喂食 条件反射, how motivation works, 响铃铛喂食, 然后以后一响铃唾液就会增加, Classical conditioning.

This lecture talks about the Pavlov experiment. According to the speaker, he has mentioned some points of view. There are 3 steps in the experiment. Firstly, the unconditioned response means the dog salivates in response to seeing food. Secondly, the conditioning means every time the dog sees the food, just ring the bell. Finally, the conditioned response means although there is no food, you just ring the bell and the dog will salivate.

94Performance of Math and English

The lecture is about performance of math and English for boys and girls. In English, girls outperform boys, which is 6% better. In math, boys and girls have no real difference. There are two factors, Including biological factors and social factors. Girls' pattern recognizing abilities are better than boys.



1.上面是一个表格是 UK 在四个不同的年份的人口,数字都是 million 以上。表格下面是三个问题, UK 的三个不同城市有 national park 文章最开始把所有人口读出来。然后说这个原因是第一个城市没有 national park,第二个和第三个城市有,后面就讲这三个城市有什么问题。

2.一张关于UK 和 Scotland 的 population的表, London X,000,000, Wales X,000,000, Scotland X,000,000, British X,000,000. London 有配一个表格, 上面有Scotland, Wales, London, UK 具体的人口, 音频也读了这些数据. 一开始说London的人口差不多7m, 等于Wales跟Scotland的人口之和, 分别说了一下三个城市的人口数.然后说大部分英国人都住在伦敦 其他国家人口就比较分散, 每几个在英国的人生活在伦敦, 所以管理London比管理其它两个城市要困难, 主要是因为英国没有一个National party.还提到了用national party管理这些城市里的人, 然后结尾一句很长的话.


有一个图, 示意rural的poverty更严重, 然后听力就提及要我们应当着力解决rural 的poverty问题.原因是第一这个可以减少全球的贫困人口, 第二个是这个也可以降低unbran 的poverty rate 因为urban 的贫困人口大多都是从rural去的横向是india 越南 还有另外两个国家 题目贫困对比图 纵向是几个分类 有level of education, poverty degree什么的 大概就是对比这几个国家的贫困程度是rural regions have serious problem of poverty, 有75%的贫困人口生活在rural area, 有个表格,是几个国家名(越南等等),对应了4个指标,包括死亡率,受教育率,可以照着读。最后提到了rural 和urban的关系。ppt上给了线图,国家是越南,印度,津巴布韦,ppt上内容并不多,还是要仔细听音频,主要讲的就是rural poverty的分布,也提到了urbanization,细节想不起来了,貌似没有提环境。Environmental problems including water pollution and the sanitation of drinking water, indoor smoke, gas emission. Poor people are especially affected especially in terms of their health. The rising demand for energy consumption is likely to sustain until 2030, which will have an effect on a range of environmental problems.

100.Price of Housing

The impact on young Australians who are interested in buying a home of their own has been very significant. It's housing affordability now that shapes the typical housing cycle or housing career as some people call it. Most Australians in the normal course of events people move through the housing cycle in a way that matches the stages of life that they're at so they move out of the family home in their late teens or early 20s as they gain independence from their families, they rent they save for a home either in their own or as part of a couple or a group, they buy a home they can afford and maybe they upgrade when they have a family in their middle age they are more than likely to have paid off their mortgage, and that means that they have housing security in their old age. That's no longer the typical housing cycle for Australians, young people generally live at how much longer than they once did they generally rent for longer and they're more likely to be saddled with a mortgage not just into their middle age but more often than not into retirement as well. In fact in 2006 nearly 65,000 retiree households were still paying off the mortgage. Affordable rent is also elusive right around Australia we have very low rental vacancy rates, we see high turnover as landlords want to maximize their profits in a tight market, and we see less long-term or lifelong rental, as we see in other in other countries and other economies.


Housing affordability has changed the housing cycle of Australian people. In the past, young Australian people rent a home until they could afford to buy a home. They were able to pay off the mortgage and have a housing security in their old age. Nowadays, young people rent homes for a longer time and they cannot pay off the mortgage even after retirement. In conclusion, there is less long-term rental.


For better or worse, we live in a world profoundly affected by Sigmund Freud. If I had to ask you to name a famous psychologist, the answer of most of you would be Freud. He's the most famous psychologist ever and he's had a profound influence on the 20th and 21th century. Some biographical information: he was born in the 1850s. He spent most of his life in Vienna, Austria, but he died in London and he escaped to London soon after retreating there at the beginning of World War Two as the Nazis began to occupy where he lived. He's one of the most famous scholars ever but he's not known for any single discovery. Instead, he's known for the development of and encompassing theory of mind, one that he developed over the span of many decades.

98Public Policy

The main topic of the lecture is about how important public policy is. The speaker mentions that due to public policy programs there are less children living in poverty. There are also some practices that help older people .

99Pull and push

回忆1.考了一个Pull 和 Push,有配图,具体忘记了,不难

回忆2.带有视频 讲的pull/push force 给了一个例子是给一个箱子施加了力但箱子也不一定会动

100Randomness of flipping coin

Flipping a coin may not be the fairest way to settle disputes. About a decade ago, statistician Persi Diaconis started to wonder if the outcome of a coin flip really is just a matter of chance. He had Harvard University engineers build him a mechanical coin flipper. Diaconis, now at Stanford University, found that if a coin is launched exactly the same way, it lands exactly the same way.

The randomness in a coin toss, it appears, is introduced by sloppy humans. Each human-generated flip has a different height and speed, and is caught at a different angle, giving different outcomes. But using high speed cameras and equations, Diaconis and colleagues have now found that even though humans are largely unpredictable coin flippers, there's still a bias built in, If a coin starts out heads, it ends up heads when caught more often than it does tails. NPR's David Kestenbaum reports.

讲各种可能的原因, 最后又说其实不是随机的, 但是影响他的各 种原因我们又无法控制 说是flipping coin with head or tail in most of time is a random selection, which cannot be controlled by humans。随机性, 什么叫arbitrary.(这篇文章只要听懂了arbitrary这个词就都不难)举例说像flipping a coin, 要做到包括抛的力度和旋转的角度都很精确度才不会是random的, 但是大部分的人做不到, 所以是random的.有些人用机器来保证精确度, 这样就不属于random了.后面还有一段什么内容忘了.抛硬币 先给出ramdon process的定义 然后举例抛硬币 如果你够牛逼 能control这个那个 你就能flip any side you want 但是most of us cannot最后总结抛硬币是random process。


In 1943, what became known as the Green Revolution began when Mexico, unable to feed its growing population, shouted for help. Within a few years, the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations founded the International Rice Research Institute in Asia, and by 1962, a new strain of rice called IR8 was feeding people all over the world. IR8 was the first really big modified crop to make a real impact on world hunger. In 1962 the technology did not yet exist to directly manipulate the genes of plants, and so IR8 was created by carefully crossing existing varieties: selecting the best from each generation, further modifying them, and finally finding the best. Here is the power of modified crops: IR8, with no fertilizer, straight out of the box, produced five times the yield of traditional rice varieties. In optimal conditions with nitrogen, it produced ten times the yield of traditional varieties. By 1980, IR36 resisted pests and grew fast enough to allow two crops a year instead of just one, doubling the yield. And by 1990, using more advanced genetic manipulation techniques, IR72 was outperforming even IR36. The Green Revolution saw worldwide crop yields explode from 1960 through 2000.


Task design in robot is hard because our humans can separate things by our senses but for robot, even they have camera and the picture contains many pixel, and the translation of every pixel to something could be difficult. Thus there is no comparison between humans and robots.


The lecture discusses the utilization and the development of robots.Robots have been applied into car manufacture in the factories. Moreover, there are also an increasing number of multi-functional service robots. Instead of robots for general purpose, robots for special purposes such as vacuum cleaner robots have been purchased by many bachelors. In conclusion, 25000 robots were sold out in one year.

104Security council

一个光头帅哥在一个会议上讲这个事是一个视频, 讲了一个牛人在security council, 有些人发现他老是点头, 以为不知道在干什么, 其实他在pay attention,他可以同时听俄语, 然后听英文同传, 并指出同传犯的错误有人在他旁边发现他不仅在干这些事, 还在画画, 画这些security council member 的素描画. 现在在council 里面他们都有的一个 dark market 是卖他的画的。


Your level of self-confidence can show in many ways: your behavior, your body language, According to the survey, people’s confidence level will vary depending on several factors. The factors include country, age, gender, income, marital status, the environment, and so on. The accumulated outcome of these factors will finally affect people’s confidence level.


The shuttle was designed to be a space truck it's a multi-purpose vehicle. We've done a tremendous number of different things with it. It's the most versatile space vehicle that has ever been built. We've used it to launch satellites. We've used it to repair satellites in orbit and put them back into orbit. We've used it to capture satellites and bring them back to Earth for repair. We've outfitted it with the space lab built by our European partners and used it before the era of the space station to do scientific research. We used it as part of our partnership with the Russians, which is still continuing, first as part of the Mir space station, where we actually prolonged the useful life of Mir by several years through logistical supply visits with the shuttle. And now. Of course, we're using it to build the new international space station, which is a huge international partnership.

107Shy fish

When you think of a leader, you may think of an individual who is above all bold. But a new study of fish called sticklebacks shows that shy individuals actually prefer to follow fish that are similarly timid. Researchers had trios of sticklebacks with known personalities play follow the leader. The fish were placed in a tank that had some plastic plants at one end and some food hidden at the other. In some of the groups, a bold fish and a shy fish acted as leaders, while another shy fish followed. And in other groups, it was a bold fish that did the following. The researchers recorded whether the follower sallied forth more frequently with the fish that was behaviorally similar or the one that was different. What they found is that shy fish were more likely to emerge from undercover when an equally wary fellow was already out there. Bold follower fish did not seem to care which leader they followed. Of course, no matter which fish a stickleback chose to stick with, the bold fish did lead more expeditions over the course of the experiment than their more retiring friends. That’s because the bold fish initiated more trips, regardless of who might be tailing them. The findings are in the journal Biology Letters. The researchers write that “when offered a choice of leaders, sticklebacks prefer to follow individuals whose personality matches their own, but bolder individuals may, nevertheless, be able to impose their leadership, even among shy followers, simply through greater effort.” We may soon see if such tendencies also hold true in humans, when Americans decide who they’ll follow in November. Unless, of course, something fishy happens.

108Smartphone apps

Computer scientist Shwetak Patel and his team are developing new sensing systems. The initial focus was really around energy and water monitoring. They built a new generation of smart sensors that monitor electronic interference on a home’s power line or water pressure changes in the plumbing. Most of this technology has already found industrial applications, and Patel and his team turned their attention to adapting the technology for personal health monitoring. ‘So how do we take this noise and make it into a signal interest was hard to us, hard to us in the core of what we did for many years and we’re taking that work and applying it to other domains.’ They’re looking to take advantage of all the functionality built in our smartphones. With the users’ permission, this app can use the microphone built into most smartphones to listen to background noises, such as coughing searching for patterns that suggest a trip to the doctor might be an order. ‘We've constructed these models that try and understand how sound works, how it, what its patterns are and we give it a whole bunch of examples of different kinds of audio, things like people talking, things like people laughing, sneezing and of course coughing.’ This app uses a phone’s camera to check hemoglobin levels in blood by analyzing the color of capillary fluid through the skin. ‘Generally, what happens is if you’re anemic, your bloods maybe a little less red and we take advantage of that by putting your finger over a camera of a phone, the camera of the phone can actually see the coloration of the blood.’ and this test uses the camera to tell parents worried about jaundice in newborn infants. ‘Now, jaundice is something that doctors who have seen tons of babies. He just can figure out on a very basic level of it. Is this baby, do they need to get treatment or are they in a good condition, while the first-time parent has no idea necessarily what jaundice might look like.’ The researchers say the built-in sensors found in smart phones are already commonplace, but their applications and their implications for our health and well-being may be more far-reaching than we ever imagined.

109Smell of books

回忆1.Sweet smell of books 在Youtube上输入:A book by any other name would smell as sweet (21 June 2012) 应该是从4分开始,请问在哪里结束呀?

回忆2.我也考过smell of book 那题 应该就是那个 连视频都一样 但是不知道在哪儿结束

110Social Identity(收集中)

111Soot emission

回忆要点:首先说soot also called black carbon。然后说soot contributes to climate warming。soot does not accumulate in the atmosphere like CO2. reduction in soot have immediate but not long-term effects on global warming. if we want to stabilize the climate system, we need to focus on greenhouse gases such as CO2.

112Space time


回忆2.提到space time 不是鸡精里面的了 是新的一篇和dimension有关的

113Stari most

The historic town of Mostar, spanning a deep valley of the Neretva River, developed in the 15th and 16th centuries as an Ottoman frontier town and during the Austro-Hungarian period in the 19th and 20th centuries. Mostar has long been known for its old Turkish houses and Old Bridge, Stari Most, after which it is named. In the 1990s conflict, however, most of the historic town and the Old Bridge, designed by the renowned architect Sinan, was destroyed. The Old Bridge was recently rebuilt and many of the edifices in the Old Town have been restored or rebuilt with the contribution of an international scientific committee established by UNESCO. The Old Bridge area, with its pre- Ottoman, eastern Ottoman, Mediterranean and western European architectural features, is an outstanding example of a multicultural urban settlement. The reconstructed Old Bridge and Old City of Mostar is a symbol of reconciliation international co-operation and of the coexistence of diverse cultural, ethnic and religious communities.


There are many stars in the galaxy. Some stars' temperature is very high so they self-burned. Other stars are very cold. There are average 7 new stars in the galaxy every year. Only 20% are suitable, so every 5 years there will be a new suitable star.


116Stem Cells(收集中)

117Stress reactivity

The lecture talks about the relationship between individual’s stress reactivity and maternal behavior. According to the lecture, the differences in stress reactivity of adult are determined by maternal behavior during infancy. For the high licking and grooming group, the development of stress reactivity is moderate, reducing the risk of disease. However, for the low licking and grooming group, the stress reactivity increases with higher risk of disease like heart disease and alcoholism. In conclusion, different level of licking and grooming impacts greatly on stress reactivity.


回忆要点:回忆1.没怎么听懂,大概意思是,为什么人们会create superman这个形象,因为when people face fear and crisis, some people may get more power than others

superman有特殊的physical power. 有个实验证明power只是temporary的, not available in the future.

回忆2.开题先说的超人,配了超人图。说人们经常讨论超能力,比如超人那样的超级英雄可以轻松举起汽车。然后就提到了super strength在现实是否存在。举例说说到了人在面临危险或者紧急的时候会在adrenaline肾上腺素作用下举起汽车。而这种超级力量是不可重复的。



students are motivated by the needs to learn that's how we can teach. Teaching can demonstrate current research to the students. Teaching can bring intelligence together; find problems of research in the teaching process. Teaching is stimulated and motivated. Teaching is to find new idea, new way to do things. 最后定义了how to become a good professor.



122Tertiary education expenditure in Europe

The lecture compares the expenses of education institution among different European countries. UK spent 1.08% of its GDP on education institutions, which was insufficient compared to other European countries including Italy, Denmark and Spain. The expenditure of Italy and France is close to that of UK. Denmark and Finland spent much more than the rest of the European countries. Northern European countries’ tertiary educational expenditure is high.

123The Large Hadron Collider

考试回忆:图上面有数据. 7ev - 7ev. Release energy 14,000 collision只需把图片内容读出即可, 最后需要加,能够更好了解宇宙的未来,大致这个意思。开始提到了这个东西是一个27km 的tunnel,中间提到了检测protons灯。7tev 的意思是7000 time larger than , 忘记了。最后提到稳定是1.9 degree可以达到absolute zero

124Thermodynamic Theory

The lecture is about thermodynamic theory and kinetic theory, which are major development of physics. Thermodynamics is about heat and temperature transmission and their relation to energy and work. The laws of thermodynamic are constant and statistical, describing how quantities behave under various circumstances. Thermodynamics are obeyed under most situations, although there are exceptions where atoms move randomly with kinetic energy.

125Three kinds of results(收集中)

126Three plans to stimulate the consumer

1. Straight Salary

Straight salary sales compensation plans aren't very common, but they do have a place in some organizations. With this type of structure, you'd pay your sales people a straight albeit competitive salary like all of your other employees, and nothing else. No bonuses, no commissions, and few, if any, sales incentives.

This type of compensation plan is most often used when the industry you operate within prohibits direct sales, when sales people work as part of small groups or teams and all contributions are equal, when your sales team is relatively small, or when your sales people are expected to spend much of their time on other responsibilities other than selling.

However, these plans don't tend to offer motivation to sales people, as there are no incentives for them to work harder.

2. Salary plus Commission

Salary plus commission sales compensation plans are possibly the most common plans used today. They're structured in a way that sales people receive a lower base salary along with commission pay that makes up the majority of the total compensation.

Organizations use salary plus commission sales compensation plans when there are opportunities to support all sales people on this structure and when there are proper metrics in place for tracking sales to ensure that the splits are fair and accurate.

This type of plan is often the better choice as opposed to straight salary because it offers motivation to increase productivity and to achieve goals. It also offers more stability.Sales people will still get some types of pay even if they're in training, when sales are low during certain months, or if market conditions get volatile. However, it can be more complex to administer.

3. Commission Only

Commission only sales compensation plans are exactly what they sound like you pay your sales people for the sales they bring in and nothing else. There is no guarantee of income.

These types of plans are easier to administer than salary plus commission and provide better value for your money paid as they are based solely on sales achieved. They also tend to attract fewer candidates, but do attract the most top-performing and hardest working sales professionals who know they can make a good income because they know how to sell. On the other hand, though, they can create aggression within your sales team and low income security, which can lead to a high turnover rate, and sales rep burnout from stress.

127Trade-offs triangle

Well, it's about whether you can achieve a win win solution, whether you can achieve an economic growth which bring wealth in order to cut poverty without damaging the biodiversity. And the argument is that if you want protect the biodiversity, you have to focus that as a goal, but if you do that, you are running the risk of hurting the poor and you also run the risk of inconvenience and reducing the economic growth. We use the developed and industrialized countries to see this argument this is all argues about. With let us say, a government wishing to start drilling for oil place and wildlife conservation society is urging not to on the ground of its wellness.



回忆1.考了一个transformation 举例子china 和一些正处于transformation初期的国家有 个图线图做部分是pre-industralial period 右边好像是现在

回忆2.还提到了 GDP 多少,然后多久没变还是怎样来的吧。最后说很多国家,比如china还在transform 的beginning,是early period


放了一个人物头像, 感觉像是古希腊或者罗马的学者, 不认识. why we should talk about rebel because .... truth. Rebel is about body. Truth is about spirit.


130Two kinds of journal

Two kinds of journal, peer reviewed and non peer reviewed. All articles sent to publications should be testified to ensure all articles are original and high quality If not good, it will send back to the author to amend. Both two journals can be searched and accessed from the library. Only peer reviewed can be used in this assignment. Peer reviewed one has some features, include footnotes of bibliography , no advertisements

131Two Kinds of Tanks

German tiger panzer vs t-34, 比较这两个坦克的什么fire power, armor, and mobility 结论就是虽然虎式坦克在各方面都outperformed t-34 结构依然是 t-34 通过巨大的数量优势获胜。

This lecture talks about two kinds of tanks. According to the speaker, he was mentioned some points of view. There are two kinds of tanks, one named panzer tiger, the other one named T-34. The panzer tiger is better than T-34 defeated the panzer tiger because the number of the T-34 is larger than that of the panzer tiger. But in the end, the T-34 defeated the panzer tiger because the number of the T-34 is larger than that of the panzer tiger.

132Underwater Detectors

The lecture talks about Underwater Antares detectors, which is a camera installed under the water for fish monitoring. It is a remote technology system, some researchers can monitor fishes in their computer in University. The camera can detect surrounding environments and fish. This help find out what they eat and do not eat. They can stop feeding them if necessary in some situation to save time and labor.

133Variation in Frogs

Frogs are a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura. The oldest fossil proto frog appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is found in tropical rain forests. There are approximately 4,800 recorded species, accounting for over 85% of extant amphibian species. They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. Besides living in fresh water and on dry land, the adults of some species are adapted for living underground or in trees. Adult frogs generally have a carnivorous diet consisting of small invertebrates, but omnivorous species exist and a few feed on fruit. Frogs are extremely efficient at converting what they eat into body mass. They are an important food source for predators and part of the food web dynamics of many of the world's ecosystems. The skin is semipermeable, making them susceptible to dehydration, so they either live in moist places or have special adaptations to deal with dry habitats.

Frogs produce a wide range of vocalizations, particularly in they are breeding season, and exhibit many different kinds of complex behaviors to attract mates, to fend off predators and to generally survive. Frog populations have declined significantly since the 1950s. More than one third of species are considered to be threatened with extinction and over one hundred and twenty are believed to have become extinct since the 1980s. The number of malformations among frogs is on the rise and an emerging fungal disease, chytridiomycosis, has spread around the world.

Conservation biologists are working to understand the causes of these problems and to resolve them. Frogs arevalued as food by humans and also have many cultural roles in literature, symbolism and religion.


The graph shows tree types of frogs in different region, indicating their life habits and their influence on human. The variation of frog has been existing for many years that some have more limbs while some have fewer limbs. The lecture also explains the reason for the gene mutation. Many people are worried that river those frogs live will be polluted by them and affect our health.



136Vitamin D

Vitamin D refers to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, and zinc. In humans, the most important compounds in this group are vitamin D3 (also known as cholecalciferol) and vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol). cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol can be ingested from the diet and from supplements. Very few foods contain vitamin D synthesis of vitamin D in the skin is the major natural source of the vitamin. Demmel synthesis of vitamin D from cholesterol is dependent on sun exposure (specifically UVB radiation). Vitamin D from the diet or dermal synthesis from sunlight is biologically inactive activation requires enzymatic conversion (hydroxylation) in the liver and kidney. Evidence indicates the synthesis of vitamin D from sun exposure is regulated by a negative feedback loop that prevents toxicity, but because of uncertainty about the cancer risk from sunlight, no recommendations are issued by the Institute of Medicine (US) for the amount of sun exposure required to meet vitamin D requirements.

Accordingly, the Dietary Reference Intake for vitamin D assumes no synthesis occurs and all of a person's vitamin D is from food intake, although that will rarely occur in practice. As vitamin D is synthesized in adequate amounts by most mammals exposed to sunlight, it is not strictly a vitamin, and may be considered a hormone as its synthesis and activity occur in different locations. Vitamin D has a significant role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism. Its discovery was due to effort to find the dietary substance lacking in rickets.


The lecture talks about Vitamin D. Vitamin D is not dietary if without sunshine. Vitamin D is not a real vitamin it’s a hormone. Very few foods contain vitamin D synthesis of vitamin D in the skin is the major natural source of the vitamin and need sunlight to absorb. Some regions people less expose in sunlight do not have enough vitamin D and the same in winter when people wear more clothes.

137Wages and consumptions

According to the speaker, the wage increase is 5%, which is very weak. The consumption is about 15%, which seems decent. The housing debt is about 40%, which is unusual. But can be understandable after the wage and consumption increase.

138Welsh Speaker

welsh is a Celtic language spoken in wales by about 740,000 people, and in the welsh colony in Patagonia, Argentina by several hundred people. There are also welsh speakers in England, Scotland, Canada, the USA, Australia and New Zealand. At the beginning of the 20th century about half of the population of wales spoke welsh as an everyday language. Towards the end of the century, the proportion of welsh speakers had fallen to about 21%. According to the 2001 census 582,368 people can speak welsh, 659,301 people can either speak, read or write welsh, and 797,717 people, 28% of the population, claimed to have some knowledge of the language. According to a survey carried out by S4C, the welsh language TV channel, the number of welsh speakers in wales is around 750,000, and about 1.5 million people can 'understand' welsh. In addition, there are an estimated 133,000 welsh-speakers living in England, about 50,000 of them in the Greater London area.


The lecture talks about Welsh which is a Celtic language spoken in Wales, Wales's colony, England, Canada, USA. At the beginning of the 20th century about half of the population of Wales spoke Welsh as an everyday language, towards the end of the century, the proportion of Welsh speakers had fallen to about 20%. According to the 2001 census about 750,000 people speak, read or write Welsh and 28% of the population have some knowledge of the language. In the end, the number of Welsh speaker has a positive prediction.