真题机经-口语Retell Lecture(PART 2)
139Western Country Child Birth Rates
The western countries women are becoming more and more reluctant to give birth to babies. However, the male's status in society remains as strong as it ever has in recent years. The birth rates increased during 20's century but it starts to decrease over these last two decades. In the year 2000, as an example, the birth rate remained at around 1%. There are even some negative birth rates in other countries. Birth rates dropped to its lowest point that has never been seen in the society. It also has impacts on male in the society especially young man, and it might have some connection with unemployment rates as well.
The lecture talks about the child birth rates in European countries. In the beginning of the lecture, the speaker mentioned that the rate decreases to historical low in about 1.1-1.2% in recent years. The reason is that women in Europe are unwilling to give birth especially those young women under 30 years old. At the end of the lecture, he concluded that the phenomenon would affect man's position of life, which will increase their unemployment rate.
Wilson came from a different world. And he became the focal point of a board mainstream American culture that thought that modern literature and wanted modern literature to be able to be read and appreciated by ordinary people. They were not modernists in an abstract sense. And certainly some of them like TS Eliot and Faulkner were too difficult for some of their writings to be read by ordinary people. But this was a world before the division between the brows or between a lead or whatever had established itself as a part of our consciousness. Wilson was a major player in the successful effort of his generation to establish at the heart of American life and innovative literature that would equal the great cultures of Europe. And he knew that the great cultures of Europe were there. He was not a product of a narrow American Studies kind of training at all. He joined a high artistic standard with an openness to all experience and a belief that literature was as much of a part of life for everyone as conversation. He thought the Proust and Joyce and Yeats and Eliot could and should be read by ordinary Americans and helped that to happen. Wilson was a very various man. Over a period of almost 50 years, he was a dedicated, a literary journalist, and an investigative reporter, a brilliant memoirist, and dedicated journal keeper. His biography, biographical histories to the Finland station and patriotic gore are profoundly influential with Americans today.
Wind turbine is a device that will convert wind into mechanical movement, which we can use to power water pump or electricity generator. Now the power that the turbine creates is obviously depended on the wind speed, it also depended obviously on the number of sails, the area of the sails and the angle of the sails makes to the wind. So you can imagine if the turbine blades flat onto the wind, the wind's going to just bend it, if there is slight angle when the wind hits it, it's going to turn the blades. We can use that for powering things. Now, we're going to have a go, making some of the very, very simple paper windmills, a sort of things that you can make from the bits and pieces lying around home, and use that to drive very small generator to power electronic devices.
In the lecture, the speaker talks about wind power plant. At the beginning of the lecture, the speaker saves it is a device that can convert wind into mechanism energy, which can be used for water power pump or electricity generator. Also, the speaker mentions the turbine created depend on the wind speed, the number of sails, the area of sails and the angles that sails make to the wind. According to the speaker, as bending the angle of the blades, the wind hits them and could turn the blades, and then you can use it for powering things.Lastly, the speaker indicates that we could make simple windmills to drive electronic devices.
143Human body model
回忆要点：给了一张图片 一个橘黄色木头人model 图片无用 主要说human body model 说人的working mechanism 跟machine 一样 build human body model can help us study how our body works 中间解释了原因 具体内容忘记了 最后说engineers build models
144Civilization and art/文明与艺术
I have said before that you can’t have a civilization that doesn’t have art when we think about the great civilizations historically. All of them had a great production of culture and art because a society has failed to observe itself and the sophistication of the great civilizations were their ability to look at themselves. And what allows a society to do that are the producers of art and culture with mirror back to the core of the society exactly. What is being produced at that moment? How people are thinking of themselves and how individuals are relating to the social structure at that time. Art is the vehicle through which we understand that were you to take away art. What would be that mirror? How would we see what we were about? How would we understand what was going on in Paris at the time of the Impressionists when people were learning to see in a completely different way? Pre-cinematography Pierre all of these things are just emerging and here are people looking at the world in a very different way, which was considered so radical at that time.
This lecture talks about civilization and art. It is impossible to have a civilization without art. Civilization reflects the production of culture and the producers of art and culture should mirror back to the core of the society. People themselves and individuals are relating to the social structure at that time. Art is the vehicle through which we understand that were you to take away art, and it also reflects that how people look at the world in different ways.
Now the economists’ calculated, it’s a back of the envelope calculation, that removing all immigration controls would double the size of the world economy, and even a small relaxation of immigration controls would lead to disproportionally big gains. Now for an ethical point of view, it’s hard to argue against a policy that will do so much to help people that are much poorer than ourselves. The famous Rand Study reckons that a typical immigrant who arrives in US ends up with $20.000 a year, that’s rough. It’s not just the migrants themselves who gain, it’s the countries they come from. Already, the migrants working for poor countries working in rich countries send home around 200 billion dollars a year, through formal channels, and about twice as that through informal channels. And that compares to the neat a hundred million dollars that Western governments give in aid. These remittances are not wasted on weapons or siphoned off into Swiss bank accounts; they go straight into the pockets of local people. They pay for food, clean water, and medicines, they help kids in school, they help start up new business.
Welcome to today's lesson. We're continuing with our study of taxonomy. Taxonomy is how scientists classify organisms into different groups based on the characteristics that they share. So, for instance, a good way to think about taxonomy is the US Postal Service. If we want to send a letter to someone, we first start off by addressing it to the nation they are in. By default. we usually assume that's America but it doesn't have to be a treat England or Costa Rica or Spain. You put their nation or their kingdom. Then within that kingdom, you address it to a slightly more specific level they're states. So, for instance, South Carolina would be the same as a phylum. And within that state, you would address it to their city and then to their street number, the street they live on. Then you would address it to say their apartment complex and within that complex, you'd address it by their last name to their family and then finally their first name to the specific person you want to get it to and in that way we're able to weed out all the 400 million people we don't want to send our letter to in America and pinpoint the exact person we want the letter to reach. And in the same way, scientists use a taxonomy chart to pinpoint a living creature and organism and how it relates to everything else in the world.
There’s sugar in a lot of foods where you don’t expect it. Of course there’s lots of sugar in donuts of ice cream, or pastries, or other things that are sweet; candy of course, but there are other places where you see it and you don’t necessarily expect it. So as a example: peanut butter. Here’s a list of ingredients from Skippy Peanut Butter and you see that sugar is the second most common ingredient. So that you may know from the reading food labels that these ingredients in any food labels that are listed in order of how much there is in the food itself, so sugar comes right after peanuts. Here’s another example, Beef stew, you wouldn’t necessarily expected to find sugar in beef stew but it’s there. Now it’s down the list of ingredients, it’s actually toward the end, but if you look at the marketing of this and food at the can, it says, there’s fresh potatoes and carrots, but actually there’s more sugar in this than there is carrots. And so you wouldn’t eat something like beef stew and expect to find this to be the case.
The lecture is about sugar. There is sugar in a lot of foods where you don’t expect it. Besides, there are also other places where you see sugar and you don’t necessarily expect it. For example, sugar is the ingredient of peanut and beef stew, and you will not know this after you have read the food labels. Other food like fresh potatoes and carrots contain sugar, and you wouldn’t eat something like beef stew and expect to find this to be the case.
148Benefits of online lecture
回忆要点：Semester’s first lecture is held online. 三点好处1. different modules bring different skills and knowledge? 2. take notes 3. listen to different subjects and lectures and make a choice
153.Arctic and Antarctic
So, when we talk about the polar regions, just to clarify exactly what we mean. And we have first of all the Arctic at the top of the earth and the Antarctic at the bottom, and so the Arctic was named after the Greek word for bear. Now surprisingly it’s not after the polar bears that live in the Antarctic or live in the Arctic and based on it’s after the little and great bear constellations that can be seen in the sky. Now the Greek also hypothesize that there would be the Anti-arctic, which is how we get the name Antarctica and of course it wasn’t discovered until much later on. Now these regions are opposite in many ways other than just their names and their location on the globe, and so if we look at the arctic first of all, and the Arctic is actually ocean surrounded by land, and so you can see here this is the UK down here and this kind of Russia and then American Canada around here, and so there is a bit of land cover in our ice on the top in the Arctic, which is Greenland here and Macie all this area here. Surprisingly a lot of people don’t realize that this isn’t actually land. The north pole isn’t on land. It’s just one big ocean.
The lecture mainly talks about the polar regions, including Arctic and Antarctic. Moreover, they located at the top and bottom of the earth, and so the Arctic was named after the Greek word for bear, which relates to the little and great bear constellations in the sky. The lecture also mentions that now the Greek hypothesize that there would be the Anti-arctic, and these regions are opposite in many ways other than just their names and their location on the globe. Finally, the speaker mentions that the north pole isn’t on land, but it is one big ocean.
149Animal behavior V2
Why should we bother studying animal behavior? Well, first and foremost, because we are interested in understanding why animals do what they do. There are lots of other reasons for studying animal behavior. Conservation biologists need to know what animals do if they’re going to save them. Are those animals social or solitary? How much space do they need and how many mates do they have? Sometimes you can’t predict the outcome of the research. Fernando Nottebohm started out being interested in how birds know what to sing. Yet his research eventually led to a complete overhaul of the entire field of neurobiology, a totally unanticipated yet utterly monumental effect. And this is the course textbook by John Alcock the fact that this is in its ninth edition tells you how fast an afield animal behavior is. There are lots of new developments.
150Music and well-being
So what do we mean by well-being? Health, happiness, a sense of achievement and contentment, a state of mind and body where people can thrive. Well-being is not something that is purely limited to people who are facing extraordinary challenges in their lifestyle, health or personal circumstances, everybody here has a level of well-being.
Music so often forms an intuitive part of our well-being management, music to pick us up, music to calm us down, music to heal our sorrows. Our aim through research is to move from this level of intuitive application of music through to informed use in our communities to take the next step in the understanding of the power of music in human life. Music already works for us on so many levels whether it’s soothing and teaching our infants bringing people and communities together adding spirit to our work and personal endeavors, but there is no reason to stop here.
The lecture mainly focus on well-being, which includes health, happiness, a sense of achievement and contentment, a state of mind and body where people can thrive. In addition, everybody has a level of well-being. The speaker also emphasizes that music so often forms an intuitive part of our well-being management, and the research takes the next step in the understanding of the power of music in human life. In conclusion, the music already works for us on so many levels, but there is no reason to stop here. In conclusion, the music already works for us on so many levels, but there is no reason to stop here.
This is a kind of object that you’re probably all familiar with when you had the term robot, but I’m gonna show you the very, very first robots. These were the very first robots. They were characters in a play in the 1920s called Rossum’s Universal Robots and they, the play was written by Czech writer called Karel Capek. And basically, these robots, you know, people tend to think of robots as kind of cute cuddly toys or, you know, Hollywood depictions kind of devoid of politics. But the first robots were actually created and imagined in a time of absolute political turmoil. You just had the First World War, you know, it finished had a devastating impact across Europe and so people will kind and people are kind of reflecting on what does it mean to be human, what makes us human, those kinds of question. And this kind of context is what inspired Capek to kind of write this play. And interestingly, these robots being human, they are actually in the play assembled on a production line, a bit like the Ford manufacturing production line. So even though they are human, they are assembled and these robots are designed to labor, and that is their primary purpose in society.
回忆要点：As the world population growth, the aging population has become more serious. 2. Aging percentage in the US is now 13% and is expected to be 23% in 2030. 3、The situation is the same in Japan and Germany. 4、There will be more than 20% of the German population aged over 65 years old in 2030. 5、Aging problem is related to industrialization.
153Father and child
回忆1.上次考了一题新的RL 有图 是爸爸抱着孩子。主要说的是爸爸和孩子的关系。总分总的结构。爸爸和孩子之间的关系越 来越被重视。爸爸能教给孩子的主要是responsibility。爸爸给孩子safe，让孩子在外面risk，但是不管怎么样都可以back。最 后总结了两点，记不清了。
回忆2.讲父亲在孩子成长中的角色 父亲角色很重要 要跟孩子玩 让小孩长大后更 independent passionate。
156Gene affects behaviors（收集中）
回忆要点：视频题：一个lecture 的现场。 【视频里面有个ppt，ppt是一个电脑屏幕，屏幕上是一个不明生物的模拟图，（lecturer称不明生物为beast）以这个图来讲3D scanning技术】 不太确定具体内容，记得的关键词是：3D scanner，laser，screen，triangle （说什么more triangles more clearer the detail）triangle一词出现多次。主要讲3D scan技术的。
158What is intelligence
回忆1.图片题 题目是 what is intelligence？下面有三个点就是三个单词，我只记得第一个adaption，其他忘了，一个女生讲的。
回忆2.也是一张PPT what is intelligence 底下三点 之后 还有四个小图 其中一个图钉在木头里 失忆了。
回忆1.考了 parents teach their children two language（bilingually）
回忆2.考到, 大致内容是 if children raised in a bilingual family, which means children get taught two languages at the same time, they easily get confused..