【易学PTE】真题鸡精-阅读FIB (PART 1)(更新日期:2018-11-16)

1      Teenage daughter

Yourteenage daughter gets top marks in school, captains the debate team, andvolunteers at a shelter for homeless people. But while driving the family car,her text-messages her best friend and rear-ends another vehicle.

Howcan teens be so clever, accomplished, and responsible—and reckless at the same time? Easily, according to twophysicians at Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School (HMS) whohave been exploring the unique structure and chemistry of theadolescent brain. “The teenage brain is not just an adult brain with fewermiles on it,” says Frances E. Jensen, a professor of neurology. “It’s aparadoxical time of development.These are people with very sharp brains, but they’re not quite sure what to dowith them.”

Inanimals, movement is coordinated by a cluster of neurons in the spinal cordcalled the central pattern generator (CPG). This produces signals that drivemuscles to contract rhythmicallyin a way that produces running or walking, depending on the pattern of pulses. A simple signal fromthe brain instructs the CPG to switch between different modes, such as going from a standstill towalking.


青少年怎么会如此聪明、有成就、有责任感——同时又如此鲁莽呢?波士顿儿童医院(Children 's Hospital Boston)和哈佛医学院(HarvardMedical School, HMS)的两名医生一直在探索青少年大脑的独特结构和化学成分,他们说,这很容易。青少年的大脑不仅仅是一个成年人的大脑,大脑上的里程更少,神经学教授弗朗西斯e詹森(Frances E. Jensen)说。这是一个矛盾的发展时期。这些人的大脑非常敏锐,但他们不太确定该怎么处理。


2      Pinker

Ina sequence of bestsellers, including The Language Instinct and How the MindWorks, Pinker has argued the swathes of our mental, social and emotional livesmay have originated asevolutionary adaptions, well suited to the lives our ancestors eked out on thePleistocene savannah. Sometimes it seems as if nothing is immune from being explained this way. Roadrage, adultery, marriage, altruism, our tendency to reward senior executiveswith corner offices on the top floor, and the smaller number of women whobecome mechanical engineers—all may have their rootsin natural selection, Pinker claims. The controversial implicationsare obvious: that men and women might differin their inborn abilities at performing certain tasks, for example,or that parenting may have little influenceon personality.

在一系列畅销书中,包括《语言本能》(Language Instinct)和《大脑如何运作》(HowThe Mind Works),平克认为,我们的精神、社交和情感生活可能起源于进化适应,非常适合我们祖先在更新世大草原(Pleistocenesavannah)外的生活。有时候,似乎没有什么东西可以不被这样解释。平克说,路怒症、通奸、婚姻、利他主义、我们倾向于奖励高层管理人员在顶楼设立角落办公室,以及越来越少的女性成为机械工程师——所有这些都可能源于自然选择。有争议的含义是显而易见的:例如,男性和女性在执行某些任务时的先天能力可能有所不同,或者养育子女对个性的影响可能微乎其微。

3      Video-Conferencing Technology

Neverhas the carbon footprint of multi-national corporations been under such intensescrutiny. Inter-city train journeys and long-haul flights to conduct face-to-face business meetingscontribute significantly to greenhouse gases and the resulting strain on the environment. The Anglo-UScompany Teliris has introduced a new video-conferencing technology and partneredwith the Carbon Neutral Company, enabling corporate outfits to become moreenvironmentally responsible. The innovation allows simulated face-to-facemeetings to be held across continents without the time pressure or environmental burden ofinternational travel. Previous designs have enabled video-conferencing on apoint-to-point, dual-location basis. The firm's Virtua Live technology,however, can bring people together from up to five separate locations anywherein the world - with unrivalled transmissionquality.


4      Australia Higher Education Funding

Financingof Australian higher education has undergone dramatic change since the early1970s. Although the Australian Government provided regular funding foruniversities from the late 1950s, in 1974 it assumedfull responsibility for funding higher education - abolishing tuition fees with the intentionof making university accessible toall Australians who had the ability andwho wished to participate in higher education.

Sincethe late 1980s, there has been a move towards greater private contributions, particularly student fees. In 1989, theAustralian Government introduced the Higher Education Contribution Scheme(HECS) which included a loans scheme to help students finance theircontributions. This enabled university to remain accessibleto students by delaying their payments until they could afford to pay off theirloans. In 2002, the Australian Government introduceda scheme similar to HECS for postgraduate students - thePostgraduate Education Loan Scheme (PELS). Funding for higher education comesfrom various sources. This article examines the three main sources - AustralianGovernment funding, student fees and charges, and HECS. While the proportion oftotal revenue raised through HECSis relatively small, HECS payments are a significant component of students'university costs, with many students carrying a HECS debt for several yearsafter leaving university. This article also focuses on characteristics ofuniversity students based on their HECS liability status, and the level ofaccumulated HECS debt.



5      Social Isolation

Sounddepressing, even apocalyptic? Well, it could be the future. If government forecasts are right, about 20 years fromnow, two out of five households will be single occupancy.And there is evidence the situation is already deteriorating.According to a report, Social Isolation in America, published in the AmericanSociological Review in 2006, the average American today has only two closefriends. Twenty-five per cent of those surveyed said they do not have anyone totalk with about important things---And yet, while some are declaring a crisis in our ability to makefriends, others are saying exactly the opposite. For example, MSN's Anatomy ofFriendship Report, published last November, suggests that the average Britonhas 54 friends - a spectacular rise of64 per cent since 2003.

听起来很压抑,甚至是世界末日?它可能是未来。如果政府的预测是正确的,大约20年后,五分之二的家庭将是单身。有证据表明,情况已经在恶化。2006年发表在《美国社会学评论》(American Sociological Review)上的一篇题为《美国的社会孤立》(Social Isolation in America)的报告指出,如今普通美国人只有两个亲密的朋友。25%的受访者表示,他们没有任何人可以谈论重要的事情——然而,尽管一些人宣称,我们交朋友的能力出现了危机,但其他人的看法却恰恰相反。例如,MSN去年11月发布的《友谊剖析报告》(Anatomy of Friendship Report)显示,英国人平均拥有54位朋友——2003年以来,这一数字惊人地增长了64%

6      Edison

ThomasAlva Edison was both a scientistand an inventor. Born in 1847, Edison would see tremendous change take place in his lifetime. He was also tobe responsible for making many of those changes occur. When Edison was born,society still thought of electricityas a novelty, a fad.

Bythe time he died, entire cities were lit by electricity. Much of the credit for that progress goes to Edison.In his lifetime, Edison patented 1,093inventions, earning him the nickname “The Wizard of Menlo Park.” The most famousof his inventions was the incandescent light bulb. Besides the light bulb,Edison developed the phonographand the “kinetoscope,” a small box for viewing moving films.

ThomasEdison is also the first person in the US to make his own filmstrips. He also improved upon the original design of thestock ticker, the telegraph, and Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone. He believedin hard work, sometimes working twenty hours a day. Edison was quoted assaying, “Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.” In tribute to this important American,electric lights in the United States were dimmedfor one minute on October 21, 1931, a few days after his death.




7      Impressionism

Impressionismwas a nineteenth century art movement that began as a loose association ofParis-based artists who started publicly exhibiting their art in the 1860s. Characteristics of Impressionist painting include visiblebrush strokes, light colours, open composition, emphasis on light in its changing qualities (oftenaccentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, andunusual visual angles. The name of the movement is derived from Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise (Impression,soleil levant). Critic Louis Leroy inadvertently coined the term in a satiricreview published in Le Charivari.

Radicalsin their time, early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. Theybegan by giving colours, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painters suchas Eugene Delacroix. They also took the act ofpainting out of the studio and into the world. Previously, not only still-livesand portraits, but also landscapes had been paintedindoors, but theImpressionists found that they could capturethe momentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting air (inplain air).


在他们那个时代,早期的印象派画家打破了学院派绘画的规则。他们一开始就给人以色彩,随意刷过,把线条画在首位,从尤金·德拉克罗瓦(Eugene Delacroix)等画家的作品中汲取灵感。他们也把绘画从画室带到了世界。在此之前,不仅静物和肖像,而且风景画都是在室内画的,印象派画家发现他们可以通过画空气(在普通空气中)来捕捉阳光瞬间和短暂的效果。

8      Trigger Points

Allapproaches aim to increase blood flow to areas of tension and to releasepainful knots of muscle known as"trigger points". "Trigger points are tense areas of muscle thatare almost constantly contracting," says Kippen. "The contractioncauses pain, which in turn causes contraction, so you have a vicious circle.This is what deep tissue massage aims to break. "The way to do this, as Ifound out under Ogedengbe's elbow, is to apply pressure to the point, stopping the blood flow, andthen to release, which causes the brain to flood the affected area with blood, encouraging the muscle torelax. At the same time, says Kippen, you can fool the tensed muscle into relaxing by applying pressure to a complementary one nearby. "Ifyou cause any muscle to contract, its opposite will expand. So you try to trickthe body into relaxing the musclethat is in spasm."


9      University Science

Universityscience is now in real crisis - particularly the non-telegenic, non-ology bitsof it such as chemistry. Since 1996, 28 universities have stopped offeringchemistry degrees, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Thesociety predicts that as few assix departments (those at Durham, Cambridge, Imperial, UCL, Bristol and Oxford)could remain open by 2014. MostrecentlyExeter University closed downits chemistry department, blaming it on "market forces", and Bristoltook in some of the refugees

Theclosures have been blamed on a fall instudent applications, but money is a factor:chemistry degrees are expensive to provide - compared with English, for example- and some scientists say that the way thegovernment concentrates research funding ona small number of top departments, such as Bristol, exacerbates the problem.

大学科学现在正处于真正的危机中——尤其是那些不上镜、不上相的东西,比如化学。英国皇家化学学会(RoyalSociety of chemistry)的数据显示,自1996年以来,已有28所大学停止提供化学学位。



10   Sportswomen

Sportswomen'srecords are important and need to be preserved. And if the paper records don't exist, we need to get out and startinterviewing people, not to put too fine a pointon it, while we still have a chance.After all, if the records aren't kept in some form or another, then the storiesare lost too.


11   Poverty

Measuringpoverty on a global scale requires establishinga uniform poverty level across extremely divergent economies, which can resultin only rough comparisons. The World Bank has defined the international povertyline as U.S. $1 and $2 per day in 1993 Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), whichadjusts for differences in the prices ofgoods and services between countries. The $1 per day level is generally usedfor the least developedcountries, primarily African; the $2-per-day level is used for middleincomeeconomies such as those of East Asia and Latin America.


12   Advertisement

Almostall public spaces nowadays have advertisements in sight, and all forms ofmedia, from newspapers to the cinema to the Internet, are filled with adverts. This all-pervasivepresence reflects the value ofadvertising to us. Without it, businesses of all types and sizes would struggle to inform potential customersabout the products or services they provide, and consumers would be unable tomake informed assessments whenlooking for products to buy and services to use. Without advertising, thepromotion of products and practices thatcontribute to our physical and psychological well-being-medicines to treatminor ailments, insurance schemes to protect us, clothes and cosmetics to makeus look and feel better- would be infinitelymore problematic thanit is. And without advertisements and the aspirationsrepresented in them, the world would be a far duller place.


13   Indian Onion

Themost vital ingredient in Indiancooking, the basic element withwhich all dishes begin and, normally, the cheapest vegetable available, thepink onion is an essential item in theshopping basket of families of all classes. A popular saying holds that youwill never starve because you can always afford a roti (a piece of simple, flat bread) and an onion.

But in recent weeks, the onion has started to seem an unaffordable luxury for India's poor. Over the past fewdays, another sharp surge inprices has begun to unsettle the influentialurban middle classes. The sudden spikein prices has been caused by large exports to be neighboringcountries and a shortage of supply.With its capacity for bringing down governments and scarring political careers,the onion plays an explosive rolein Indian politics. This week reports of rising onion prices have madefront-page news and absorbed the attention of the governing elite.



14   Seatbelt

I am a cyclist and a motorist.I fasten my seatbelt when I drive and wear a helmet on my bike to reduce therisk of injury. I am convinced that these are prudent safety measures. I havepersuaded many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons callthose without helmets, "donors on wheels”. But a book on 'Risk’ by mycolleague John Adams has made me re-examine my convictions.

Adams has completely undermined my confidence in theseapparently sensible precautions. What he has persuasively argued, particularlyin relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they aresupposed to do is very suspect. This is in spite of numerous claims that seatbelts save many thousands of lives every year. Between 1970 and 1978 countriesin which the wearing of seat bells is compulsoryhad on average about five percent road accident death than beforethe introduction of law. In the United Kingdom road deaths decreased steadilyabout seven thousand a year in 1972 to just over four thousand in 1989. Thereis no evidence in the trend for any effect of the seat belt law that wasintroduced in 1983. there’s actually evidence that the number of cyclists andpedestals killed increased by about ten percent That twice as many childrenwere killed in road accidents in 1922 as now must not be taken as evidence thatthere is less risk when children play in the street today It almost certainlyreflects the care taken by parents in keeping children off the streets.



15   Spanish language

Ifafter years of Spanish classes, some people still find it impossible tounderstand some native speakers, they should not worry. This does not necessarily mean the lessons were wasted.Millions of Spanish speakers use neither standard Latin American Spanish norCastilian, which predominate in US schools. The confusion is partly political -the Spanish-speaking world is very diverse. Spanish is the language of 19separate countries and Puerto Rico. This means that there is no one standarddialect. The most common Spanish dialect taught in the US is standard LatinAmerican. It is sometimes called "Highland" Spanish since it isgenerally spoken in the mountainous areasof Latin America. While each country retains its own accents and has some unique vocabulary, residents ofcountries such as Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia generally speak LatinAmerican Spanish, especially in urban centers. This dialect is noted for its pronunciation of each letter and itsstrong "r" sounds. This Spanish was spoken in Spain in the sixteenthand seventeenth centuries and was brought to the Americas by the earlycolonists. However, the Spanish of Madrid and of northern Spain, calledCastilian, developed characteristics thatnever reached the New World. These include the pronunciation of "ci"and "ce" as "th." In Madrid, "gracias" (thankyou) becomes "gratheas" (as opposed to "gras-see-as" inLatin America). Another difference is the use of the word "vosotros"(you all, or you guys) as the informal form of "ustedes" in Spain. Castiliansounds to Latin Americans much like British English sounds to US residents.

如果在上了多年的西班牙语课之后,有些人仍然觉得不可能听懂一些以西班牙语为母语的人说的话,他们不应该担心。这并不一定意味着课程被浪费了。数百万说西班牙语的人既不使用标准的拉丁美洲西班牙语,也不使用在美国学校占主导地位的卡斯提尔语。这种困惑在一定程度上是出于政治原因——说西班牙语的世界非常多样化。西班牙语是19个独立国家和波多黎各的语言。这意味着没有一种标准的方言。美国最常见的西班牙语是标准的拉丁美洲语。它有时被称为高地西班牙语,因为它通常在拉丁美洲的山区使用。虽然每个国家都保留着自己的口音和独特的词汇,但墨西哥、哥伦比亚、秘鲁和玻利维亚等国的居民普遍说拉丁美洲的西班牙语,尤其是在城市中心。这种方言以其每个字母的发音和强烈的“r”音著称。这个西班牙语在十六世纪和十七世纪在西班牙被使用,并被早期殖民者带到美洲。然而,马德里和西班牙北部的西班牙人,被称为卡斯提尔人,发展出了从未到达新大陆的特征。这些包括“ci”“ce”的发音为“th”。在马德里,“gracias”(谢谢)成了“gratheas”(与拉丁美洲的“grassee -as”相反)。另一个区别是“vosotros”(你们所有人,或者你们这些家伙)在西班牙是“ustedes”的非正式形式。卡斯提尔语对拉丁美洲人的发音很像英国英语对美国居民的发音。

16   Ocean floor

The ocean floor is home tomany unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marine ecosystemsare near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef, a 2,000-km-long-coral formation off thenorth-eastern coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all complex livingcommunities, depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). The sun'senergy, however, penetrates at most only about 300 m below the surface of thewater. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinking ofcold, subpolar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a frigid environment with few life forms.

In 1977, scientists discoveredhot springs at a depth of 2.5 km, on the Galapagos Rift (spreading ridge) offthe coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really a surprise. Since the early1970s, scientistshad predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should be found at the activespreading centers along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma, at temperaturesover 1,000 °Presumably was being erupted to form new oceanic crust. Moreexciting, because it was totally unexpected,was the discovery of abundant and unusual sea life - giant tube worms, hugeclams, and mussels - that thrived aroundthe hot springs.



17   "Black" Diamonds

Anexotic type of diamond may have come to Earthfrom outer space, scientists say. Called carbonado or "black"diamonds, the mysterious stonesare found in Brazil and the Central African Republic. They are unusual for being the color of charcoaland full of frothy bubbles. The diamonds, which can weigh in at more than 3,600 carats, can also have a facethat looks like melted glass.

Becauseof their odd appearance, thediamonds are unsuitable asgemstones. But they do have industrial applications and were used in the drillbits that helped dig the Panama Canal. Now a team led by Stephen Haggerty ofFlorida International University in Miami has presented a new study suggesting that the odd stones werebrought to Earth by an asteroid billions of years ago. The findings werepublished online in the journal Astrophysical Journal Letters on December 20.

Thescientists exposed polished pieces of carbonado to extremely intense infraredlight. The test revealed the presence of many hydrogen-carbon bonds, indicatingthat the diamonds probably formedin a hydrogen-rich environment—such as that found in space.

Thediamonds also showed strong similarities totiny Nano diamonds, which are frequently found in meteorites. "They're notidentical," Haggerty said,"but they're very similar." Astrophysicists, he added, have developedtheories predicting that Nano diamonds form easily in the titanic stellarexplosions called supernovas, which scatter debris through interstellar space.

Thedeposits in the Central African Republic and Brazil, he said, probably come from the impact of adiamond-rich asteroid billions of years ago, when South America and Africa werejoined.


由于外形奇特,这些钻石不适合作为宝石。但它们确实具有工业用途,并被用于帮助挖掘巴拿马运河的钻头。现在,由迈阿密佛罗里达国际大学的斯蒂芬·哈格蒂领导的一个研究小组提出了一项新的研究,表明这些奇怪的石头是数十亿年前由一颗小行星带到地球的。这些发现发表在1220日的《天体物理学杂志快报》(Astrophysical journal Letters)网络版上。




18   Reality (Camus’ test)

Surely,reality is what we think it is; reality is revealedto us by our experiences. To one extentor another, this view of reality is one many of us hold, if only implicitly. I certainly find myself thinking this way in day-to-day life; it’seasy to be seduced by the facenature reveals directly to oursenses. Yet, in the decades since first encounteringCamus’ test, I’ve learned that modern science tells a very different story.


19   Arabic Student

HERIOT-WATTUniversity in Edinburgh has become the first in Europe to offer an MBA inArabic. Arab students will be able to sign up to study at a distance for the business courses in theirown language. The Edinburgh Business School announcedthe project at a reception inCairo on Saturday. It is hoped the course will improve links between theuniversity and the Arab business world. A university spokeswoman said:"The Arabic MBA will raise theprofile of Heriot-Watt University and the Edinburgh Business School amongbusinesses in the Arabic- speaking world and will create a strong network of graduates in the region."The first intake of students isexpected later this year. Professor Keith Lumsden, director of EdinburghBusiness School, said: "Arabic is a major global language and the Arabworld is a center for business and industrial development. We are proud to workwith Arab International Education to meet the demands of the region."

爱丁堡赫瑞瓦特大学成为欧洲第一个提供阿拉伯语MBA学位的大学。阿拉伯学生可以报名参加远程学习,学习他们自己语言的商业课程。爱丁堡商学院(EdinburghBusiness School)周六在开罗的一个招待会上宣布了这一项目。希望这门课程将改善大学与阿拉伯商界之间的联系。该校一位女发言人表示:“阿拉伯语MBA课程将提高赫瑞瓦特大学(Heriot-Wattuniversity)和爱丁堡商学院(Edinburgh Business School)在阿拉伯语世界企业中的知名度,并将在该地区打造一个强大的毕业生网络。预计第一批学生将于今年晚些时候入学。爱丁堡商学院(EdinburghBusiness School)院长基思伦斯登(KeithLumsden)教授表示:“阿拉伯语是一种主要的全球语言,阿拉伯世界是商业和工业发展的中心。我们自豪地与阿拉伯国际教育合作,以满足该地区的需求。

20   Richard Morris

RichardMorris, of the school of accounting at the University of NSW, which requires anentrance score in the top 5 per percent of students, says attendance has been aproblem since the late 1990s.

Sometimesin the lecture we’ve only got about one third of students enrolledattending, he said.

Itdefinitely is a problem. If you don’t turn up to class you’re missing out onthe whole richness of the experience: you don’t think a whole lot, you don’t engage indebates with other students or with your teachers.

Itis not all gloom, said Professor John Dearn, a ProVice-Chancellor at the University of Canberra, who said the internet was transforming the way students access anduse information.

Itis strange that despite all the evidence as to their ineffectiveness, traditional lectures seem to persist inour universities.

新南威尔士大学会计学院(school of accounting at the University of NSW)的理查德莫里斯(Richard Morris)表示,自上世纪90年代末以来,出勤率一直是个问题。



堪培拉大学副校长约翰·迪尔恩(John Dearn)教授表示,情况并非完全悲观。他表示,互联网正在改变学生获取和使用信息的方式。


21   Ikebana

Morethan simply putting flowers in a container,ikebana is a disciplined art form in which nature and humanity are broughttogether. Contrary to the of a particolored or multicolored arrangement of blossoms, ikebana oftenemphasizes other areas of the plant,such as its stems and leaves, and puts emphasis on shape, line, and form.

Thoughikebana is an expression ofcreativity, certain rules govern its form. The artist's intention behind eacharrangement is shown through a piece's color combinations,natural shapes, graceful lines, and the implied meaning of the arrangement.



22   Edible Insects

Fancylocust for lunch? Probably not, if you live in the west, but else where it’s adifferent story. Edible insects – termites, stick insects, dragonflies,grasshoppers and giant water bugs – are on the menu for an estimated 80 percent of the world’spopulation.

Morethan 1000 species of insects are served uparound the world. For example, “kungu cakes” – made from midges – are a delicacy in parts of Africa. Mexico is aninsect-eating – or entomophagous – hotspot, where more than 200 insect speciesare consumed. Demand is so highthat 40 species are now under threat,including white agave worms. These caterpillars of the tequila giant-skipperbutterfly fetch around $250 akilogram.

Eatinginsects makes nutritional sense.Some contain more protein thanmeat or fish. The female gypsy moth, for instance, is about 80 per centprotein. Insects can be a good source ofvitamins and minerals too: a type of caterpillar (Usta Terpsichore) eaten inAngola is rich in iron, zinc and thiamine.

Whatdo they taste like? Ants have a lemon tang, apparently, whereas giant waterbugs taste of mint and fire ant pupae of watermelon. You have probably,inadvertently, already tasted some of these things, as insects are oftenaccidental tourists in other types of food. The US Food and Drug Administrationeven issues guidelines for the number of insect parts allowed in certain foods.For example, it is acceptable for225 grams of macaroni to contain up to 225 insect fragments.



吃昆虫有营养价值。有些比肉或鱼含有更多的蛋白质。例如,雌性舞毒蛾的蛋白质含量约为80%。昆虫也是维生素和矿物质的良好来源:安哥拉一种毛虫(Usta Terpsichore)食物富含铁、锌和硫胺素。


23   Foreign students' English standards

FederalEducation Minister Julie Bishop says she has seen no evidencethat foreign students are graduating from Australian universities with poor English skills.

Researchby Monash University academic Bob Birrell has found a third of foreign studentsare graduating without a competent level of English. But Ms Bishop says Australianuniversities only enrol foreign students once they have achieved internationalstandards of language proficiency.

"Thishas been an extraordinary attack by Professor Birrell on ouruniversities," she said. "Internationalstudents must meet international benchmarksin English language in order to get a place at a university in Australia andthey can't get into university without reaching that internationalstandard."

Universityof Canberra vice chancellor Roger Dean also says international students arerequired to sit an English test before being admitted to nearly all Australianuniversities. "There are, of course, intercultural difficulties as well aslanguage difficulties," he said. "There are, of course, also manyAustralian students who don't speak such fantasticallygood English either. So we're trying to push the standard evenhigher than present but it's a very useful one already."

MsBishop says Australia's university system has high standards. "I've seenno evidence to suggest that students are not able to complete their coursesbecause they're failing in English yet they're being passed by theuniversities," she said. "I've not seen any evidence to back that up. Internationaleducation is one of our largest exports, it's our fourth largest export andit's in the interest of our universities to maintain very high standardsbecause their reputation is atstake.”






24   Burger King

Drivedown any highway, andyou’ll see a proliferation of chain restaurants—most likely, if you travel longand far enough you’ll see McDonald's golden arches as well as signs for BurgerKing, Hardee’s, andWendy’s the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name, though Burger King hasfallen short of claiming theburger crown, unable to surpass market leader McDonald's No. 1 sales status.Always the bridesmaid and never the bride, Burger King remains No. 2.

Worseyet, Burger King has experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customertraffic, with its overall quality rating dropping while ratings for the otherthree contenders have increased.The decline has been attributed toinconsistent product quality and poor customer service. Although the chaintends to throw advertising dollars at the problem, an understanding ofIntegrated Marketing Communication theory would suggest that internalmanagement problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to be rectified before a unified, long-termstrategy can be put in place.

Theimportance of consistency inbrand image and messages, at all levels of communication, has become a basictenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer’s ordermust communicate the same message as Burger King's famous tagline, "Haveit your way,” or the customer will just buzz up the highway to a chainrestaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more reliable.



在品牌形象和信息的各个层次的传播中,一致性的重要性已经成为IMC理论和实践的基本原则。接受顾客点餐的人必须传达出与汉堡王(BurgerKing)那句著名口号相同的信息:“随你便”(letit your way),否则顾客就会在高速公路上直奔一家连锁餐厅,这家餐厅看起来更一致,因此也更可靠。



在品牌形象和信息的各个层次的传播中,一致性的重要性已经成为IMC理论和实践的基本原则。接受顾客点餐的人必须传达出与汉堡王(BurgerKing)那句著名口号相同的信息:“随你便”(letit your way),否则顾客就会在高速公路上直奔一家连锁餐厅,这家餐厅看起来更一致,因此也更可靠。

25   Kashmiri

Two decades ago, Kashmirihouseboat-owners rubbed their hands every spring at the prospect of the annual influx of tourists. From May to October, thehyacinth-choked waters of DalLake saw flotillas of vividly painted shikarascarrying Indian families, bohowesterners, young travellers and wide-eyed Japanese. Carpet-sellers honed their skills, as did purveyors of anythingremotely embroideredwhile the house boats initiated by the British Raj provided unusualaccommodation. The economy boomed. Then, in 1989, everything changed. Hindusand countless Kashmiri business people bolted, at least 35,000 people were killed in a decade, the lakestagnated, and the houseboats rotted.Any foreigners venturingthere risked their lives - proved in 1995 when five young Europeans werekidnapped and murdered.


26   Visual art

Itis the assertion of this article that students who use visual art as aprewriting stimulus are composing their ideas both in images and in words. Theresult of the art creation process allows students the distance to elaborate, add details, and create morecoherent text. The process of writing is more than putting words on a piece ofpaper. Effective authors are able to create imageryand to communicate ideas using well-chosen words, phrases, and textstructures. Emergent writers struggle with the mechanicsof the writing process, i.e. fine motor control for printinglegibly, recall of spelling patterns, and the use of syntax and grammar rules.As a result, texts written by young writers be simplistic and formulaic. Theartwork facilitates the writingprocess, resulting in a text that is richer in sensory detail and more intricate than the more traditionalwriting-first crayon drawing-second approach.


27   Orchestra

Awayfrom the rumble ofShanghai's highways and the cacophonyof the shopping districts, stroll down side streets filled with rows of tall brick houses. In the early evening or on aweekend morning, you'll hear the sound ofclassical music drifting from a piano, played by a10-year old or a grandmother in her seventies. Wanderdown another alley toward drabskyscraper and you'll hear Beethoven or Mozart flowing from aviolin, or perhaps a cello,accordion or flute.

InChina, classical music is booming asmightily as the 1812 Overture.It's fortissimo inShanghai, home to China's oldest orchestra,forte in Beijing and other lively cities, and on a crescendo in farther-flung areas. Commanding ¥100-200 ($12.50-$25) per hour,private music teachers inShanghai can readily earn more than five times the average per capita monthlyincome.


在中国,古典音乐像《1812序曲》一样蓬勃发展。它位于上海,是中国最古老的管弦乐队的故乡,在北京和其他热闹的城市,它的地位越来越高。指挥¥100 - 200每小时(12.50 - 25美元),私人音乐教师在上海很容易赚的比人均月收入的5倍。

28   Kimbell

The first section of the bookcovers new modes of assessment. In Chapter 1, Kimbell (Goldsmith College, London)responds to criticisms of designprograms as formalistic and conventional, stating that a focus on risk-takingrather than hard work in design innovation is equallyproblematic. His research contains three parts that include preliminary exploration ofdesign innovation qualities, investigation of resulting classroom practices,and development of evidence-based assessment. The assessment he describes ispresented in the form of a structured worksheet, which includes a collaborativeelement and digital photographs,in story format. Such a device encourages stimulating ideas, but does notrecognize students as design innovators.The assessment sheet includes holistic impressions as well as details about“having, growing, and proving” ideas.

Colloquial judgments are evident in terms such as“wow” and “yawn” and reward the quality and quantity of ideas with the term,“sparkiness”, which fittingly is a pun as the model project was to design lightbulb packaging. In addition, the assessment focuses on the process ofoptimizing or complexity control as well as proving ideas with thoughtfulcriticism and not just generation of novel ideas. The definitions for qualitiessuch as “technical” and “aesthetic” pertaining to users, are too narrow andill-defined. The author provides examples ofthe project, its features and structures, students’ notes and judgments, andtheir sketches and photographs of finished light bulb packages, in theAppendix.



29   Icing and anti-inflammatories

Icingand anti-inflammatories will helpwith the pain and swelling. Vigorous massage ofthe knot in the musclewill help it to relax and easethe pain. Meanwhile, work on strengtheningand stretching your hip, hamstring and lower-back muscles. For stretching, focus on the hamstringstretch, the hip and lower-back stretch, and the hamstring and back stretch.For strengthening, try side leg lifts.


30   English class at Beijing Language Institute

Therewere twenty-six freshmen in majoring inEnglish at Beijing Language Institute in the class of 1983. I was assigned to Group Two with another elevenboy and girls who has come from bigcities in China. I was told that language study required smallness so that wewould each get more attention from the skilful teachers. The better the school,the smaller the class.

Irealized that my classmates were ready all talkingin English, simple sentences tossed out to each other in theirred-faced introductions and carefree chatting. Their intonations were curvingand dramatic and their pronunciation refined and accurate. But as I stretchedto catch the drips and drops of their humming dialogue, I couldn’t understand it all, only that it wasEnglish. Those words now flying before me sounded a little familiar. I had readthem and tried to speak them, but I had never heard them spoken back to me in such a speedy, fluentmanner. My big plan of beating thecity folks was thawing before myeyes.


我意识到我的同学们都准备好了用英语交谈,在面红耳赤的介绍中互相抛出简单的句子,畅所欲言。他们的语调是弯曲和戏剧性的,他们的发音是精致和准确的。但当我伸开四肢去抓住他们嗡嗡作响的对话时,我完全听不懂,只知道那是英语。这些话现在在我面前飞来飞去,听起来有点耳熟。我读过它们,并试着说它们,但我从未听过它们以如此迅速、流利的方式对我说话。我打败城里人的宏伟计划在我眼前逐渐瓦解 (我的计划落空了)

31   Morality of the welfare system

Themorality of the welfare state depends oncontribution and responsibility. Since some people don't contribute and many are irresponsible, thechoices of those who do contribute and are responsible is either to tolerate the free riders, refuse to payfor the effects of theirirresponsibility or trust the state to educatethem. Hence the government campaigns against smoking, alcoholism, obesity and gas guzzling - thefirst two solidly in place, the other two ramping up. But the British state nowgoes further: it acts in favour of sexual and racial minorities. In the case ofgay men and women this means progressively removing the legal disadvantagesunder which they have lived and ensuring that society as a whole observes the new order.


32   Planes

By2025, government experts' say, America's skies will swarm with three times as many as planes, and not just thekind of traffic flying today. There will be thousandsof tiny jets, seating six orfewer, at airliner altitudes,competing for space with remotely operated drones that need help avoidingmid-air collisions, and withcommercially operated rockets carrying satellitesand tourists into space.


33   Stress

Stressis what you feel when you have to handle more than you are used to. When youare stressed, your body responds asthough you are in danger. It makes hormones thatspeed up your heart, make you breathe faster, and give you a burst of energy.This is called the fight-or- fight stress response.

Somestress is normal and even useful.Stress can help if you need to work hard or react quickly. For example, it canhelp you win a rare or finish an important jobon time.

Butif stress happens too often or lasts too long, it can have bad effects.It can be linked to headaches, anupset stomach, back pain, and trouble sleeping. It can weaken your immune system, making it harder fight off disease.




34   Jean Piaget

JeanPiaget, the pioneering Swiss philosopher and psychologist, spent much of hisprofessional life listening to children, watching children and poring over reports of researchers aroundthe world who were doing the same. He found, to put it most succinctly, that children don't thinklike grownups. After thousands of interactions with young people often barelyold enough to talk, Piaget began to suspect thatbehind their cute and seemingly illogical utteranceswere thought processes that had their own kind of order and theirown special logic. Einstein called it a discovery“so simple that only a genius could have thought of it.”

Piaget'sinsight opened a new window into the inner workings of the mind. By the end ofa wide-ranging and remarkably prolific researchcareer that spanned nearly 75 years, from his first scientific publication atage 10 to work still in progress when he died at 84, Piaget had developedseveral new fields of science: developmental psychology, cognitive theory andwhat came to be called genetic epistemology Although not an educationalreformer, he fashioned a way of thinking about children that provided thefoundation for today’s education-reform movements. It was ashift comparable to the displacement of stories of "noble savages” and"cannibals” by modem anthropology. One might say that Piaget was the firstto take children's thinking seriously.

瑞士哲学家、心理学家让皮亚杰(Jean Piaget)是一位先驱,他的职业生涯大部分时间都在倾听孩子们的声音,观察孩子们,研究世界各地研究人员的报告。简而言之,他发现孩子们不像成年人那样思考。皮亚杰在与几乎不太会说话的年轻人进行了数千次交流之后,开始怀疑在他们可爱且看似不合逻辑的话语背后的思维过程有着自己的秩序和独特的逻辑。爱因斯坦称这个发现如此简单,只有天才才能想到

皮亚杰的洞察力为我们打开了一扇新的窗户,让我们了解大脑的内部运作方式。广泛年底和非常多产的研究跨越近75年的职业生涯,从他第一次科学出版10,工作还在进行,当他在84年去世,皮亚杰已经开发了一些新的科学领域:发展心理学,认知理论,被称为发生认识论虽然不是一个教育改革家,他倡导了一个儿童的思考方式, 为今天的教育改革运动提供了基础。这一转变堪比现代人类学对贵族野人食人族故事的取代。有人可能会说皮亚杰是第一个认真对待儿童思维的人。

35   The writing on the wall 不祥之兆

Theinevitable consequences include rampantcorruption, an absence of globally competitive Chinese companieschronic wasteof resources, rampant environmental degradationand soaring inequality. Above all, the monopoly over power of anideologically bankrupt communist party is inconsistentwith the pluralism of opinionsecurityof property and vibrant competition on which a dynamic economy depends. As aresult, Chinese development remains parasitic on know-how and institutionsdeveloped elsewhere.


36   Definition of Country

Whatis a country, and how is a country defined?

Whenpeople ask how many countries there are in the world, they expecta simple answer. After all, we've explored the whole planet, we have internationaltravel, satellite navigation and plenty of global organizations like the UnitedNations, so we should really knowhow many countries there are!

However,the answer to the question varies according towhom you ask. Most people saythere are 192 countries, but others pointout that there could be more like 260 of them.

Sowhy isn't there a straightforward answer?

Theproblem arises because there isn't a universally agreed definition of 'country' and because, forpolitical reasons, some countries find it convenient to recognize or not recognize other countries.






37   United Nations

Foundedafter World War II by 51 "peace-loving states" combined to opposefuture aggression, the United Nations now counts 192 member nations, including its newest members, Nauru,Kiribati, and Tonga in 1999, Tuvalu and Yugoslavia in 2000, Switzerland and EastTimor in 2002, and Montenegro in 2006.

UnitedNations Day has been observed onOctober 24 since 1948 and celebrates the objectives and accomplishments of theorganization, which was established on October 24, 1945. The UN engages in peacekeeping and humanitarianmissions across the globe. Though some say its influencehas declined in recent decades, the United Nations still plays atremendous role in world politics. In 2001 the United Nations and Kofi Annan,then Secretary-General of the UN, won the Nobel Peace Prize "for theirwork for a better organized and more peaceful world."

Since1948 there have been 63 UN peacekeeping operations,16 are currently under way. Thus far, close to 130 nations have contributedpersonnel at various times; 119 are currently providing peacekeepers. As ofAugust 31, 2008, there were 16 peacekeeping operations underway with a total of88,230 personnel. The small island nation of Fiji has taken part in virtuallyevery UN peacekeeping operation, as has Canada.


联合国日自1948年以来一直在1024日庆祝,庆祝于19451024日成立的联合国的目标和成就。联合国在全球执行维和和人道主义任务。尽管有人说,联合国的影响力近几十年来有所下降,但它在世界政治中仍然发挥着巨大的作用。2001年,联合国和当时的联合国秘书长科菲安南(Kofi Annan)为建设一个更有组织、更和平的世界所做的努力而获得诺贝尔和平奖。


38   Job of a doctor

Inthe fast-changing world of modern healthcare, the job of a doctor is more andmore like the job of a chief executive. The people who run hospitals andphysicians’ practices don’t justneed to know medicine. They mustalso be able to balance budgets, motivate a large and diverse staff and makedifficult marketing and legal decisions.

“Thefocus in medical school is to train good doctors, but part of being a gooddoctor is being a good manager,” says Fawaz Siddiqi, a neurosurgical residentat the London Health Science Centre in Canada. “It’s having a coreunderstanding of how to work within the contextof an organisation.”


加拿大伦敦健康科学中心的神经外科住院医师Fawaz Siddiqi:“医学院的重点是培养好医生,但成为一名好医生的一部分就是成为一名好的管理者。”“这是对如何在组织背景下工作的核心理解。

39   Market for Vegetarian foods

MintelConsumer Intelligence estimates the2002 market for vegetarian foods, those that directly replace meat or otheranimal products, to be $1.5 billion. Note that this excludes traditionalvegetarian foods such as produce, pasta, and rice. Mintel forecasts the marketto nearly double by 2006 to $2.8 billion, with the highest growth coming fromsoymilk, especially refrigerated brands.

TheFood and Drug Administration's 1999 decision to allow manufacturers to includeheart- healthy claims on foods that deliver at least 6.25 grams of soy proteinper serving and are also low in saturated fatand cholesterol has spurred tremendous interestin soymilk and other soy foods. A representative of manufacturer Food TechInternational (Veggie Patch brand) reported that from 1998 to 1999, thepercentage of consumers willingto try soy products jumped from 32% to 67%. Beliefs about soy's effectiveness in reducing the symptoms ofmenopause also attracted new consumers. A 2000 survey conducted by the UnitedSoybean Board showed that the number of people eating soy products once a weekor more was up to 27%. Forty-five percent of respondents had tried tofu, 41%had sampled veggie burgers, and 25% had experience with soymilk (Soy foods USAe-mail newsletter). Mintel estimates 2001 sales of frozen and refrigerated meatalternatives in food stores atnearly $300 million, with soymilk sales nearing $250 million.

Mintel消费者情报公司(Mintel Consumer Intelligence)估计,2002年素食食品(直接取代肉类或其他动物产品的食品)的市场价值为15亿美元。请注意,这并不包括传统的素食食品,如农产品、面食和大米。Mintel预计,到2006年,市场规模将接近翻番,达到28亿美元,其中增长最快的是豆浆,尤其是冷冻品牌。

美国食品和药物管理局(Food and Drug Administration,简称fda) 1999年决定,允许生产商在每份食品中添加至少6.25克大豆蛋白、饱和脂肪和胆固醇含量也较低的有益于心脏健康的食品,这激起了人们对豆浆和其他大豆食品的极大兴趣。制造商食品科技国际(VeggiePatch)的一位代表报告说,从1998年到1999年,愿意尝试大豆产品的消费者比例从32%跃升至67%。关于大豆在减少更年期症状方面的有效性的信念也吸引了新的消费者。联合大豆委员会(United soy Board)2000年进行的一项调查显示,每周食用一次或更多大豆产品的人数高达27%45%的受访者吃过豆腐,41%的人吃过素食汉堡,25%的人吃过豆浆(豆制品美国电子邮件通讯)。英敏特公司估计,2001年冷冻肉类替代品在食品店的销售额接近3亿美元,豆奶销售额接近2.5亿美元。

40   Wine and ale

Bythe drinking vessels were beingmade of sheet metal, primarily bronze or gold. However, the peak of feasting –and in particular, of the “political” type of feast came in the late Hallstattperiod (about 600 – 450 BC), soon after the foundation of the Greek colony of Massalia (Marseille) at themouth of the Rhine. From that date on, the blood of the grape began to make itsway north and east along majorriver systems together with imported metal and ceramic drinking vessels fromthe Greek world.

Thewine was thus added to the list ofmood-altering beverages – such as and ale available to establish socialnetworks in Iron Age Europe. Attic pottery fragments found at hillforts such asHeuneburg in Germany and luxury goods such as the monumental 5th century Greekbronze krater (or wine mixing vessel) found at Vix in Burgundy supplyarchaeological evidence of this interaction. Organic containers such as leather or wooden wine barrels may alsohave travelled north into Europe but have not survived. It is unknown whatgoods were traded in return, butthey may have included salted meat, hides, timber, amber and slaves.

饮水器由金属片制成,主要是青铜或黄金。然而,宴会——尤其是政治形式的宴会的高峰出现在哈尔施塔特后期(大约公元前600 - 450),在希腊殖民地马萨利亚(马赛)在莱茵河河口建立之后不久。从那以后,葡萄的血液开始沿着主要的河流系统向北和向东流动,同时还有从希腊进口的金属和陶瓷饮用容器。


41   Enigma

And if thevoice of an animal is not heard as message but as art, interesting things startto happen: Nature is no longer an alien enigma, but insteadsomething immediately beautiful, an exuberantopus with space for us to join in. Birdmelodies have always been called songs for a reason.As long as we have been listening, people have presumed there is music comingout of those scissoring beaks.


42   Oxford medical school

When I enrolled in my master'scourse at Oxford last year, I had come straight from medical school with thedecision to leave clinical science for good. Thinking back, I realize that Ididn't put very much weight onthis decision at the time. But today, I more clearly understand the consequences of leaving my originalprofession. When I meet old friends who are now physicians and surgeons, Isense how our views on medical problems have diverged.They scrutinize the effects of disease and try to eliminate or alleviate them;I try to understand how they come about in the first place. I feel happierworking on this side of the problem, although I do occasionally miss clinical workand seeing patients.

However, when I think aboutthe rate at which my medical skills and knowledge have dissipated, the years spent readingweighty medical textbooks, the hours spent at the bedside, I sometimes wonderif these years were partly a waste oftime now that I am pursuing a research career.

Nonetheless, I know the valueof my medical education. It is easy to forget the importance of the bioscienceswhen working with model organisms in basic research that seem to have nothingto do with a sick child or a suffering elderly person. Yet, I still have vividmemories of the cruel kaleidoscope of severe diseases and of how they can strike a human being. I hope to retainthese memories as a guide in my current occupation.




43   Online campus

Remember when universities were bursting at the seams withstudents sitting in the aisles, balancing books on theirknees?

Nomore, it seems. E-learning is as likely to stand for empty lecture theatres asfor the internet revolution, which has greatly increasedthe volume and range of course materials availableonline in the past five years.

"Thetemptation now is to simply think, 'Everythingwill be online so I don't need to go to class'," said Dr Kerri-Lee Krause,of the Centre for the Study of Higher Education at the University of Melbourne.

Thenation's universities are in the process of opening the doors for the newacademic year and, while classes are generally well attendedfor the early weeks, it often does not last.

"Thereis concern at the university level about student attendancedropping and why students are not coming to lectures," Dr Krause said.

Butlecturers' pride - and fierce competitionamong universities for students - mean few are willing to acknowledge publiclyhow poorly attended many classes are.



墨尔本大学(Universityof Melbourne)高等教育研究中心(Centre for The Study of Higher Education)的凯里··克劳斯(Kerri-LeeKrause)博士说:“现在的诱惑就是简单地想,一切都会在线,所以我不需要去上课




44   Job-hunting

It’sprobably one of the most overused phrases in job-hunting, but also one of themost underutilized by job-seekers: dress for success. When it comes tojob-hunting, first impressions arecritical. Remember, you are marketing a product - yourself - to a potentialemployer. The first thing the employer sees when greeting you is your attire; thus, you must make every effortto have the proper dress for the type of job you are seeking. Will dressingproperly get you the job? Of course not, but it will give you a competitive edge and a positivefirst impression.

Shouldyou be judged by what you wear? Perhaps not, but the reality is, of course,that you are judged. Throughout the entire job-seeking process employers useshort-cuts — heuristics or rules of thumb — to save time. With cover letters,it’s the opening paragraph and a quick scan of your qualifications. Withresumes, it is a quick scan of your accomplishments. With the job interview,it’s how you’re dressed that sets the toneofthe interview.

Howshould you dress? Dressing conservatively is always the safest route, but youshould also try and do a little investigatingof your prospective employerso that what you wear to the interview makes you look as though you fit in with the organization. If youoverdress (which is rare but can happen)or under dress (the more likely scenario), the potential employer may feel thatyou don't care enough about the job.




45   The horned desert viper

Thehorned desert viper’s ability to hunt at night has always puzzled biologists.Though it lies with its head buriedin the sand, it can strike with great precision as soon as prey appears. Now,Young and physicists Leo van Hemmen and Paul Friedel at the TechnicalUniversity of Munich in Germany have developed a computer model of the snake’sauditory system to explain howthe snake “hears” its prey without really having the ears for it. Although thevipers have internal ears thatcan hear frequencies between 200and 1000 hertz, it is not the sound of the mouse scurrying about that they aredetecting. “The snakes don’t have external eardrums,”says van Hemmen. “So unless the mouse wears boots and starts stamping, thesnake won’t hear it.”

有角的沙漠毒蛇在夜间捕猎的能力一直困扰着生物学家。虽然它的头埋在沙子里,但一旦猎物出现,它就能精确打击。现在,德国慕尼黑工业大学的年轻物理学家Leovan HemmenPaul Friedel开发了一种蛇听觉系统的计算机模型,用来解释蛇是如何在没有耳朵的情况下听到猎物的。尽管蝰蛇有一个内部耳朵,能听到2001000赫兹之间的频率,但他们所探测到的并不是老鼠四处乱窜的声音。这些蛇没有外部耳膜,·海门说。所以,除非老鼠穿上靴子,开始跺脚,否则蛇是不会听到的。

46   Impact and management of purple loosestrife

Theinvasion of non-indigenous plants is considered a primary threat to integrityand function of ecosystems. However, there is little quantitative or experimental evidence for ecosystemimpacts of invasive species. Justifications for control are often based onpotential, but not presently realized, recognized or quantified, negativeimpacts. Should lack of scientific certainty about impacts of non-indigenousspecies result in postponing measures to prevent degradation? Recently, managementof purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), has been criticized for lack ofevidence demonstrating negative impacts of Lythrum salicaria, and managementusing biocontrol for lack of evidence documenting the failure of conventionalcontrol methods. Although little quantitative evidence on negative impacts onnative wetland biota and wetland function was available at the onset of thecontrol program in 1985, recent work has demonstrated that theinvasion of purple loosestrife into North American freshwater wetlands alters decomposition rates and nutrient cycling,leads to reductions in wetland plant diversity, reduces pollination and seedoutput of the native Lythrum alatum, and reduces habitat suitability for specialized wetland birdspecies such as black terns, least bitterns, pied-billed grebes, and marshwrens. Conventional methods (physical, mechanical or chemical), havecontinuously failed to curb thespread of purple loosestrife or to provide satisfactory control. Although anumber of generalist insect and bird species utilize purple loosestrife,wetland habitat specialists are excluded by encroachmentof Lythrum salicaria. We conclude that negative ecosystem impacts ofpurple loosestrife in North America justify control of the species and that detrimental effects of purple loosestrifeon wetland systems and biota and the potential benefits of control outweighpotential risks associated with the introduction of biocontrol agents. Long-term experiments and monitoring programs that are in place will evaluate theimpact of these insects on purple loosestrife, on wetland plant succession andother wetland biota.

外来植物的入侵被认为是对生态系统完整性和功能的主要威胁。然而,关于入侵物种对生态系统的影响几乎没有定量或实验证据。控制的理由通常是基于潜在的,但目前没有意识到、认识到或量化的负面影响。对非土著物种影响缺乏科学确定性是否会导致推迟防止退化的措施?近年来,由于缺乏证据证明千屈菜的负面影响,以及缺乏证据证明传统控制方法的失败,人们对紫海棠的管理提出了批评。虽然小量化证据的负面影响原生湿地的动植物和湿地功能是可以在1985年的控制程序,最近的研究表明,紫色珍珠菜的入侵北美淡水湿地改变分解率和养分循环,导致湿地植物多样性的减少,降低了授粉和种子产量的原生Lythrum alatum,也降低了特定湿地鸟类的栖息地适宜性,比如黑燕鸥,最小的麻鸦,斑纹鸟和沼泽鹪鹩。传统的方法(物理的、机械的或化学的),一直未能遏制紫色马蹄草的扩散或提供令人满意的控制。虽然有许多种类繁多的昆虫和鸟类利用千屈菜,但湿地生境专家被水杨柳的入侵排除在外。我们得出的结论是,在北美,紫椴对生态系统的负面影响证明了对该物种的控制是合理的,而紫椴对湿地系统和生物群的有害影响以及控制的潜在益处超过了引入生物控制剂所带来的潜在风险。长期的实验和监测项目将评估这些昆虫对紫苔草、湿地植物演替和其他湿地生物的影响。

47   Space work for an astronaut

The space work for anastronaut can be inside or outside, inside they can monitor machines and thework is carried out alongside thecraft. They also need to make sure the Space Travel.Outside the craft, they can seehow the seeds react in the space. Some seeds company send seeds to them to investigate how seeds change theirbiological character. When outside the craft, they can set up experiments or clean up the spacerubbish.


48   Roman arena

TheRomans glorified the bravery shownin the arena, but trivialized theevents and degraded the participants. Mosaic pictures of executions andcombats, graphically violent toour eyes, were displayed in the public rooms and even dining rooms in the homesof wealthy Romans. How can the viewer today possibly understand such images?Until fairly recently, modern authors writing about the arena minimized itssignificance and represented the institutionalizedviolence as a sideline to Roman history. The tendencywas also to view the events through our own eyes and to see them aspitiful or horrifying, although to most Romans empathy with victims of thearena was inconceivable. In the past few decades, however, scholars havestarted to analyze the complex motivations for deadly public entertainments andfor contradictory views of gladiators as despised, yet beloved hero-slaves.


49   Scientist’s Job

Scientistsmake observations, have assumptions and do experiments.After these have been done, he got his results.Then there are a lot of data from scientists.The scientists around the world have a pictureof world.


50   A Dog

ADOG may be man's best friend. But man is not always a dog's. Over the centuriesselective breeding has pulled atthe canine body shape to produce what is often a grotesque distortion of the underlying wolf. Indeed,some of these distortions are, when found in people, regarded as pathologies. Dog breeding does, though,offer a chance to those who would like to understand how body shape iscontrolled. The ancestry of pedigreepooches is well recorded, their generation time is short and their litter size reasonably large, so there isplenty of material to work with. Moreover,breeds are, by definition, inbred,and this simplifies genetic analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrander, ofAmerica's National Human Genome Research Institute, who wish to identify thegenetic basis of the features of particular pedigrees thus have an ideal experimental animal.


51   The Ministerial Staffing System

Thecontemporary ministerial staffing system is large, active and partisan - farlarger and further evolved than any Westminster equivalent. Ministers' demandsfor help to cope with the pressures of an increasingly competitive andprofessionalised political environment have been key drivers of the staffingsystem's development. But there has not been commensurate growth in arrangements to support and control it.The operating framework forministerial staff is fragmented andad hoc.


52   Alaska Island

Alaska'sAleutian Islands have long been accustomed to shipwrecks.They have been part of local consciousness since a Japanese whaling ship ran aground near the western end of the1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic archipelago in1780, inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the ship's infestation scurried ashore and made itself at home.Since then, there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in the islands.


53   Peter Garrett

Noone in Parliament would know better than Peter Garrett what largesse copyrightcan confer so it may seem right that he should announce a royalty for artists, amounting to 5 percent of all sales after the original one, which can go on giving to theirfamilies for as much as 150 years. But that ignores the truth that copyrightlaw is a scandal, recently exacerbated by the Free Trade Agreementwith the US which required extension of copyright to 70 years after death. Isit scandalous that really valuable copyrights end up in the ownership ofcorporations (although Agatha Christie's no-doubt worthy great-grandchildrenare still reaping the benefits ofWest End success for her who dunnits and members of the Garrick Club enjoy thecontinuing fruits of A.A. Milne's Christopher Robin books)? No. The scandal is that bien pensant politicians have attempted toappear cultured by creating private assets which depend on an act of Parliamentfor their existence and by giving away much more in value than any publicbenefit could justify. In doingso they have betrayed our trust.

在议会中没有人会比彼得·加勒特更加清楚慷慨版权可以授予,所以看似正确的应该由他去宣布一个艺术家的版税, 总计销售原版后的5%,可以继续给他们的家人多达150年。但这忽略了一个事实,即版权法是一桩丑闻。最近,美国与中国签订的自由贸易协定(FreeTrade Agreement)加剧了这一丑闻。真正有价值的版权最终归公司所有,这是可耻的吗(尽管阿加莎·克里斯蒂(Agatha Christie)毫无疑问值得尊敬的曾孙们仍在从伦敦西区的成功中获得利益,因为她和加里克俱乐部(Garrick Club)的成员们享受着a·a·米尔恩(A.A. Milne)的克里斯托弗·罗宾(ChristopherRobin)作品的延续成果)? 不。丑闻在于,作为善于思考的政客,他们试图通过创造私人资产来显得有文化的,而私人资产的存在有赖于议会的法案,而且他们付出的价值远远超过任何公共利益所能证明的价值。他们这样做违背了我们的信任。

54   Katakana

Aneccentric mix of English, German and French has entered Japanese usage withgrand abandon. A "kariya" woman is a career woman, and a"manshon" is an apartment. This increasing use of katakana, or uniqueJapanese versions of Western words, and the younger generation's more casualuse of the Japanese language have prompted Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi toworry that these new words may not be understood by a wider audience. As a result, a government panel isproposing to publish a manual on how to speak proper Japanese. Foreign wordsbecame katakana Japanese because noexisting Japanese words could quite capture a specific meaning or feeling. Whenthe word "cool" traveled east, all of its English connotations didnot make the journey. A kuru person in Japan is someone who is calm and nevergets upset. On the other hand,someone who is kakkoii is hip, or in translation, "cool." Similarly, a hotto person is one who iseasily excitable, perhaps passionate, but not necessarily a popular person orpersonality of the moment.


55   Complementary Therapies

Complementary therapies - suchas those practised bynaturopaths, chiropractors and acupuncturists - have become increasinglypopular in Australia over the last few decades.Interest initially coincided with enthusiasmfor alternative lifestyles, while immigration and increased contactand trade with China have also had an influence.The status of complementary therapies is being re-visited in a number of areas:legal regulation; the stances of doctors' associations; their inclusion inmedical education; and scientific research into their efficacy.


56   Mike’s Research

In 2001 he received the SIUCOutstanding Scholar Award. In 2003 he received the Carski Award forDistinguished Undergraduate Teaching from the American Society forMicrobiology. Mike’s research is focused onbacteria that inhabit extreme environments, and forthe past 12 years he has studied the microbiology of permanently ice-coveredlakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In addition to his researchpapers, he has edited a major treatise onphototrophic bacteria and served for over a decade as chief editor of the journal Archives of Microbiology. Hecurrently serves on the editorial board of Environmental Microbiology. Mike’snonscientific interests includeforestry, reading, and caring for his dogs and horses. He lives beside a peaceful and quiet lake with hiswife, Nancy, five shelter dogs (Gaino, Snuffy, Pepto, Peanut, and Merry), andfour horses (Springer, Feivel, Gwen, and Festus).


57   Meet Customer Demand

‘Just-in-time,’is a management philosophy and not a technique. It originally referred to theproduction of goods to meet customer demand exactlyin time, quality and quantity, whether the‘customer’ is the final purchaser of the product or another process further along the production line. It hasnow come to mean producing with minimum waste.

58   Egg-Eating Snakes

Egg-eating snakes are a smallgroup of snakes whose diet consists only ofeggs. Some eat only small eggs, which they have to swallow whole,as the snake has no teeth. Instead, some other snakes eat bigger eggs, but itrequires special treatment. These snakes have spinesthat stick out from the backbone. The spines crackthe egg open as it passes through the throat.


59   Flower Attract Insects

(非原文,仅大意。Only the gist. Not the original text.)
Accordingto a research conducted by Cambridge University, flowers can their own ways toattract insects to help them pollenate. Flowers will release an irresistible smell. A scientist and her colleagues did an experiment in which theyuse fake flowers to attract bees and insects.

60   Two farms

Afew summers ago, I visited two dairy farms, Huls Farm and Gardar Farm, whichdespite being located thousands of miles apart were still remarkably similarin their strengths and vulnerabilities. Bothwere by far the largest, most prosperous, most technologically advanced farmsin their respectivedistricts. In particular, each was centeredaround a magnificent state-of-the-artbarn for shelteringand milking cows. Those structures, bothneatly divided into opposite-facing rows of cowstalls, dwarfed all other barns in the district. Both farms let their cows grazeoutdoors in lush pastures during the summer,produced their hay to harvest in the late summer for feeding the cows throughthe winter, and increasedtheirproduction of summer fodder and winter hay by irrigating their fields. The twofarms were similar in an area (a few square miles) and barn size, Huls barnholding somewhat more cows than Gardar barn (200 vs. 165 cows, respectively).The owners of both farms were viewed as leaders of their respective societies.Both owners were deeply religious. Both farms were located in gorgeous naturalsettings that attract tourists from afar, with backdrops of high snow-cappedmountains drained by streams teaming with fish, and sloping down to a famousriver (below Huls Farm) or 3ord (below Gardar Farm).


61   Investment

Onecity will start to attract the majority ofpublic or private investment. Tis could be due to natural advantage or political decisions. This in turn will stimulate further investment due to themultiplier effect and significant ruralto urban migration. The investment in this city will be at the expense of other cities.


62   Anderson (安徒生)

Fans of biographical criticismhave a luxurious source in the works of Hans Christian Andersen. Like LewisCarroll (and, to a lesser extent, Kenneth Grahame), Andersen wasnear-pathologically uncomfortable in the company of adults. Of course, allthree had to
work and
interact with adults, but allthree really related well to childrenand their simpler worlds. Andersen, for a time, ran a puppet theater and wasincredibly popular with children, and, of course, he wrote an impressive bodyof fairy tales which have been produced in thousands of editions since the 19thcentury.
Most everyone has read or at least knows the titles of many of Andersen’sworks: “The Ugly Duckling,” “The Emperor’s New Clothes,” “The Nightengale,”“The Little Mermaid,” “The Match Girl,” and many others. Though, as with mostfolk and fairy tales, they
strike adultre-readers much differently than they do young first-time readers.
Charming tales of ducks who feel
awkward becausethey don’t fit in, only to exultin the discovery that they are majestic swans, gives child readersclearly-identifiable messages: don’t tease people because they’re different;don’t fret about your being different because some day you’ll discover whatspecial gifts you have.
A closer, deeper look at many of Andersen’s tales (including “The UglyDuckling,” which is not on our reading list), reveals a darker, harder, more
painful thread. People are often cruel andunfeeling, love is torturous–in general, the things of the material world causesuffering. There is often a happy ending, but it’s not conventionally happy.Characters are rewarded, but only after they manage (often through death) totranscend the rigors of the mortal world.





63   Olympic medalists

In an often-cited study aboutcounterfactuals, Medvec, Madey, and Gilovich (1995) found that bronze medalistsappeared happier than silver medalists in television coverage of the 1992Summer Olympics. Medvec et al. argued thatbronze medalists compared themselves to 4th place finishers, whereas silver medalists comparedthemselves to gold medalists. These counterfactuals were the most salient because they were eitherqualitatively different (gold vs. silver) or categorically different (medal vs.no medal) from what actually occurred.Drawing on archival data and experimental studies, we show that Olympicathletes (among others) are more likely to make counterfactual comparisonsbased on their prior expectations,consistent with decision affect theory. Silver medalists are more likely to bedisappointed because their personal expectations are higher than those of bronze medalists.


64   David Lynch

DavidLynch is professor and head of education at Charles Darwin University. Prior to this he was subdean in the Faculty ofEducation and Creative Arts at Central Queensland University and foundation head of theUniversity’s Noosa campus.David’s career in education began as a primary school teacher in Queensland inthe early 1980’s and progressed tofour principal positions before entering highereducation. David’s research interests predominate in teacher education withparticular interest in building teacher capability to meet a changed world.


65   Carbon Detox

Inhis fascinating book CarbonDetox, George Marshall argues that people are not persuaded by information. Ourviews are formed by the views of the people with whom we mix. Of the narratives that might penetrate thesecircles, we are more likely to listen to those that offer us some reward. Astory that tells us that the world is cooking and that we'll have to makesacrifices for the sake of future generations is less likely to be acceptedthan the more rewarding idea that climate change is a conspiracy hatched byscheming governments and venal scientists, and that strong, independent-mindedpeople should unite to defend their freedoms.

Heproposes that instead of arguing for sacrifice, environmentalists should show where the rewards might lie:that understanding what the science is saying and planning accordingly is thesmart thing to do, which will protect your interests more effectively thanflinging abuse at scientists. We should emphasize the old-fashioned virtues ofuniting in the face of a crisis, of resourcefulness and community action.Projects like the transition town’s network and proposals for a green new dealtell a story which people are more willing to hear.

乔治马歇尔(George Marshall)在其引人入胜的著作《碳排毒》(CarbonDetox)中指出,人们不会被信息所说服。我们的观点是由与我们交往的人的观点形成的。在那些可能会进入这些圈子的故事中,我们更有可能去听那些给我们一些回报的故事。一个故事,告诉我们,世界是烹饪,我们必须做出牺牲为了未来不太可能接受比认为气候变化是一个更有价值的策划的阴谋诡计多端的政府和腐败的科学家,强大,独立思考的人们应该团结起来,保卫自己的自由。