【易学PTE】真题鸡精-阅读FIB （PART 2）（更新日期：2018-11-20）
Theincreasing darkness in the Northern Hemisphere this time of year"indicates to the plant that fall/autumnis coming on. So it starts recouping materials from the leaves before they drop off. Evergreensprotect their needle-like foliage from freezing with waxy coatings and natural "antifreezes." Butbroadleaf plants, like sugar maples, birches, and sumacs, have no suchprotections. As a result, they shed theirleaves. But before they do, the plants first try to salvage important nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus.
Essaysare used as an assessment tool to evaluate yourability to research a topic and construct an argument,as well as your understanding of subject content. This does not mean thatessays are a 'regurgitation' of everything your lecturer has said throughout the course. Essays are youropportunity to explore in greater depth aspectsof the course - theories, issues, texts, etc. and in some cases relate theseaspects to a particular context.It is your opportunity to articulate your ideas, but in a certain way: using formal academic style.
LeonardLauder, chief executive of the company his mother founded, says she alwaysthought she "was growing a nice little business." And that it is. Alittle business that controls 45%of the cosmetics market in U.S. department stores. A little business that sellsin 118 countries and last year grew to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauderfamily's shares are worth more than $6 billion.
Butearly on, there wasn't a burgeoning business, there weren't houses in New York,Palm Beach, Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point therewas one person to answer the telephones who changedher voice to become the shipping or billing department as needed.You more or less know the Estée Lauder story because it's a chapter from thebook of American business folklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer,daughter of immigrants, lived above her father's hardware store in Corona, asection of Queens in New York City. She started her enterprise by selling skin creams concocted by her uncle, achemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts.
Nodoubt the potions were good — Estée Lauder was a quality fanatic — but thesaleslady was better. Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else inthe cosmetics industry. She stalked thebosses of New York City department stores until she got some counter space atSaks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personalselling approach that proved as potent asthe promise of her skin regimens andperfumes.
但早期，在纽约、佛罗里达州的棕榈滩(Palm Beach)，还没有一个蓬勃发展的企业，也没有房子。或者法国南部。据说，曾经有一个人在接听电话时改变了声音，成为了需要的发货或账单部门。你或多或少知道埃斯特́e兰黛故事因为它是书中的一章的美国商业民俗。简而言之，移民的女儿约瑟芬·埃斯特·门泽尔(Josephine Esther Mentzer)住在纽约市皇后区科罗娜(Corona)她父亲的五金店楼上。她是靠在美容店、海滩俱乐部和度假胜地卖她叔叔配制的护肤霜起家的。
毫无疑问,药水是好的——埃斯特́e兰黛是狂热分子,但女售货员是更好的质量。好多了。而且她在化妆品行业的工作比其他任何人都做得好。1948年，她在萨克斯第五大道百货公司(Saks Fifth Avenue)找到了一些柜台，在此之前一直在跟踪纽约市百货公司的老板。一旦进入这个领域，她就利用了一种个人推销的方法，这种方法被证明与她的护肤方案和香水一样有效。
Thetwo researchers showed that reintroducing thewolves was correlated with increased growth of willow and cottonwoodin the park. Why? Because grazing animalssuch as elk were avoiding sites from which they couldn'teasily escape, the scientists claimed. And as the woody plants and trees grew taller andthicker, beaver coloniesexpanded.
DNAbarcoding was invented by Paul Hebert of the University of Guelph, in Ontario,Canada, in 2003. His idea was to generate aunique identification tag for each species based on a short stretch of DNA. Separating species wouldthen be a simple task of sequencing this tiny bit of DNA. Dr Hebert proposedpart of a gene called cytochrome coxidaseI (COI) as suitable to the task. Allanimals have it. It seems to vary enough, but not too much, to act as areliable marker. And it is easily extracted,because it is one of a handful of genes found outside the cell nucleus, instructures called mitochondria.
Barcodinghas taken off rapidly since Dr Hebert invented it. When the idea was proposed,it was expected to be a boon totaxonomists trying to name the world's millions of species. It has, however,proved to have a far wider range of uses than the merely academic—mostpromisingly in the realm ofpublic health.
Onehealth-related project is the Mosquito Barcoding Initiative being run byYvonne-Marie Linton of the Natural History Museum in London. This aims tobarcode 80% of the world's mosquitoes within the next two years, to helpcontrol mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are responsible for half a billion malarial infections and 1mdeaths every year. They also transmitdevastating diseases such as yellow fever, West Nile fever anddengue. However, efforts to control them are consistently undermined by the difficulty and expenseof identifying mosquitoes—of which there are at least 3,500 species, many ofthem hard to tell apart.
Plantsand animals are a Montreal-based indie rock triothat began playing together as kids. Touring arduously for about five year after theirproper full-length debut in 2008, they pretty much made their records on the gountil 2013. So the band’s decision to be slow, deliberate, and thorough ontheir latest offering, Waltzed in from the Rumbling, represents a major changeof pace. Finally sleeping in their in own bed while recording, the bandassembled the album over the course of nine seasons. It’s a return to theirorigins, but it also pushes audaciously forward.
Theaesthetic varies wildly and wonderfully from track to track, each song havingits own hermetic seal but somehowstill melding cohesively as abody of work. Jangling guitars, drums leaning toward the off-kilter swing of JDilla, found sounds, a hint of shoegaze, and unorthodox instrumentation cometogether to keep the ear constantly engaged witha feeling of constant evolution. They found an antique guiro next to a brokenVCR and recorded both. They made an empty fridge sound like a timpani drum. Theyrecorded gossip on a city bus. They brought in classical string flourishes.They sometimes left mistakes if they felt they were perfectly imperfect. It’struly DIY, but with a feel of big production value that makes the album soar.
Contemplativelyrics another the album through all the exploratory wandering. The words are delivered melodically, belyingtheir potency, but listening beyond the pretty aesthetic reveals piercingobservations and an undeniable translation of felling. The simplicity of the penetratingrefrain on the three part mini opus “JeVoulais Te Dire” is a paragon of how the lyrics effortlessly cut through theinstrumentation. Guitarist/vocalist Warren Spicer sings “it’s only love but youwant it bad, encompassing how we try to avoid and downplay our desire for loveand affection, but ultimately search and long for it anyway.
Gasdrilling on the Indonesian of java has triggereda “mud volcano” that has killed 13 people and may render four squaremiles (ten square kilometers) of countryside uninhabitable for years.
Ina report released on January 23, a team of British researchers says the deadlyupwelling began when an exploratory gaswell punched through a layer of rock 9300 feet (2800 meters) below the surface,allowing hot, high-pressure water to escape.
Thewater carried mud to the surface,where it has spread across aregion 2.5 miles (4 kilometres) in diameter inthe eight months since the eruption began.
Themud volcano is similar to a gusher or blowout, which occur in oil drilling whenoil or gas squirt to the surface, team says. This upwelling, however, spews outa volume of mud equivalent to a dozen Olympic swimming pools each day. Althoughthe eruption isn’t as violent as a conventionalvolcano, more than a dozen people died when a natural gas pipelineruptured.
Theresearch team, who published their findings in the February issue of GSA Today,also estimate that the volcano, called Lusi, will leave more than 11,000 peoplepermanently displaced.
Ifyou have a chronic disease suchas heart disease, diabetes, asthma, or back or joint pain- exercise can haveimportant health benefits.However, it’s important to talk to your doctor before starting an exerciseroutine. He or she might have advice onwhat exercises are safe and any precautions you might need to take whileexercising.
Movementin painting that originated inFrance in the 1860s and had enormous influence in European and North Americanpainting in the late 19th century. The Impressionists wanted to depict real life, to paint straight fromnature, and to capture the changing effects of light. The term was first usedabusively to describe ClaudeMonet’s painting Impression: Sunrise (1872). The other leading Impressionistsincluded Paul Camile, Edgar Degas, Edouard Manet, Camille Pissarro,Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Alfred Sisley, but only Monet remained devoted toImpressionist ideas throughout his career.
Thecore of the Impressionist group was formed in the early 1860s by Monet, Renoir,and Sisley, who met as students and enjoyed painting in the open air - one ofthe hallmarks of Impressionism. They met other members of the Impressionistcircle through Paris café society. They never made up a formal group, but theyorganized eight group exhibitions between 1874 and 1886, at the first of whichthe name Impressionism was applied. Their styles were diverse, but all experimented with effects of light andmovement created with distinct brush strokes and fragments of color dabbed side-by-side on the canvas ratherthan mixed on the palette. By the 1880s the movement’s central impulse haddispersed, and a number of new styles were emerging, later described aspost-impressionism.
BritishImpressionism had a major influence on the more experimental and progressiveBritish painters in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many ofthe painters were affected in the circle of Walter Sickert, who spent much ofhis career in France and was an influential figure who inspired many younger artists. His friendand exact contemporary Philip Wilson Steer is generally regarded as the mostoutstanding British Impressionist.
Geneticallymodified foods provide no direct benefitto consumers; the food is not noticeably better or cheaper. The greaterbenefit, proponents argue, isthat genetic engineering will play a crucial role in feeding the world’s burgeoningpopulation. Opponents disagree, assertingthat the world already grows more food per person than ever before –more, even, than we can consume.
Moreover, for Professor David Phoenix, the dean of the faculty ofscience and technology, the return of single-honours chemistryis a matter of credibility and pride."If you say you're a science faculty, you have to have all the coresciences, and this course will mean we attract a new supply of potentialMasters and PhD students in chemistry."
Phoenix is adamant that the new course will teachsolid chemistry, but he thinks that an attraction forstudents will be a teaching approach that differssignificantlyfrom his days as an undergraduate. This takes real-life issues as the startingpoint of lectures and modules, such as how drugs are made or the science behindgreen issues. Out of this study, he says, students will be exposed to the samecore chemistry unchanged over decades, but they will be doing it in a way thatis more engagingand more likely to lead to more fundamentallearning. It is an approach that symbolizes chemistry’s recent success story:moving with the times, while holding fast to the subject’s essential role as abuilding block of science and technological advance.
School-to-worktransition is a historically persistent topicof educational policymaking and reform that impacts national systems of vocationaleducation and training. The transition processrefers to a period between completion of general education and the beginning ofvocational education or the beginning of gainful employment as well as to training systems, institutions, andprograms that prepare young people for careers. The status passage of youthfrom school-to-work has changed structurally under late modernism, and youngpeople are forced to adapt tochanging demands of their environment especially whenplanning for entry into the labour market. Since the transition to a job isseen as a major success in life, youth who manage this step successfully aremore optimistic about theirfuture; till others are disillusioned and pushed to the margins of society.While some young people have developed successful strategiesto cope with these requirements, those undereducated and otherwise disadvantaged in society often faceserious problems when trying to prepare for careers. Longer transitions lead toa greater vulnerability and to riskybehaviours.
Entrepreneursseek the best opportunities for production and coordinateall the other resources in order to carry them out. An entrepreneur visualizes needs and takes the necessaryactions to initiate the process bywhich they will be met. Thisoften means innovating and takingrisks.
Thefirst banks were probably the religious temples of the ancient world, and wereprobably established sometime during the third millennium B.C. Banks probably predated the invention of money. Depositsinitially consisted of grain and later other goods including cattle,agricultural implements, and eventually precious metals such as gold, in the form of easy-to- carrycompressed plates. Temples and palaces were the safest places to store gold asthey were constantly attended and well built. As sacredplaces, temples presented an extra deterrent to would-be thieves.
Theconducted study serves three objectives. The first objective is to reveal the values loaded to the child by thechild-centric mother’s attitude and the effect of 5-6-year-old nursery schoolchildren on the purchasing decision of families who belong to a highsocio-economic class. The second objective is to develop a child centricity scale and the third object is toexamine the attitude and behavior differences between low child-centric andhigh child-centric mothers. Analyzing thedata gathered from 257 mother respondents, the researchers have found that thelowest influence of the child upon the purchasing decisions of the family arethose which carry high purchasing risk and are used by the whole family,whereas the highest influence of the child upon the purchasing decision of thefamily are the products with low risk used by the whole family. Findings alsoreveal that there are statistically significant differences between the high child-centric and lowchild-centric mothers regarding purchasing products that are highly risky andused by the whole family.
Ice storm is a type of weather (干扰项condition, climate) // cold rainfall down into thecold air // from water into ice (干扰项icy)
Inthe last years of the wheat boom, Bennett had become increasingly frustrated at how the government seemed tobe encouraging an exploitative farmingbinge. He went directly after the Department of Agriculture for misleading people. Farmers on the GreatPlains were working against nature,he thundered in speeches.
Theprincipal recommendation of the world conferences was that countries must takefull responsibility for their own development. National responsibility fornational development is the necessary consequence of sovereignty. The Monterrey Consensus states that ‘Eachcountry has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development,and the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be over-emphasized. The Johannesburg Plan ofImplementation called for all governments to begin implementing nationalsustainable development strategies (NSDS) by 2005 and the 2005 Summit agreed ona target of 2006 for all developing countries to adopt and start implementationof these strategies to achieve theinternationally agreed goals. The automatic corollaryof that principle is that each country must be free to determine itsown development strategy. It is essential that all donors and lenders acceptthe principle of country ownership of national development strategies. Thisimplies the acceptance of the principle that development strategies should notonly be attuned to countrycircumstances, but also be prepared and implemented under the leadership of thegovernments of the countries themselves. The 2005 World Summit alsoacknowledged, in this regard,that all countries must recognize theneed for developing countries to strike a balancebetween their national policy priorities and their internationalcommitments.
Overthe past ten years, Australian overseas departures have grown from 1.7 millionto 3.2 million. This represents strong average, annual growth of 6.5 per cent.This paper analyses outboundtravel demand to each destination country using the travel demand models ofshort- term resident departures. The models are specified in terms of a doublelogarithmic linear functional form, with overseas departures as the dependentvariable and real household disposable income prices of travel andaccommodation in Australia, and overseas and the exchange rate as independent variables.
Themodels were estimated using historical time series data from 1973 to 1998. Thedata were obtained from several sources suchas the World Tourism Organization, Australian Bureau of Statistics, World Bankand International Monetary Fund. The results suggest that the estimatedelasticity parameters are consistent with standard economic theory. The numberof short-term resident departures is positively influenced by per capita realhousehold disposable income; and the price of domestic travel andaccommodation, and negatively influencedby the price of travel and accommodation overseas.
Theestimated demand models were used to develop the Tourism Forecasting Council’slong run forecasts. The forecasts suggest that the number of short-termresident departures will increase strongly over the next ten years, largely dueto the strength of the Australian economy, competitive trove prices, andAustralians’ interest in experiencing differentcultures and lifestyles.
Inthe 250 years of its active evolution, Funerary Violin moved from the formal tothe personal. It is clear from the earliest accountof the form that its role during the sixteenth and seventeenthcenturies was largely heraldic, to exemplifythe continuity of the social structure.The few works that have survived from this period are often surprisingly unemotional and at timesovertly grandiose.
TheaProctor was just sixteen when her entry at the Bowral Art Competition caughtthe eye of the judge, Arthur Streeton. It was the first of many associationswith art world recruits. The nextyear saw her at the Julian Ashton Art School in the illustrious company ofElioth Gruner, Sydney Long and George Lambert, for whom she often posed and whoremained her great friend untilhis death in 1930.
Lambert’spaintings and sketches of Proctor emphasize the elegance of her dress. A keeninterest in fashion was just one aspect ofher fascination with design, and she saw herself as an early style guru on aquest to rid Australian art of “its lack of imagination and inventive design”.Skilled in watercolors and drawings, Proctor did not limit herself to paper, canvases or to her popular magazineillustrations; she designed theatre sets and a restaurant interior and wrote ona range of subjects from flower arranging to the colors of cars. It made for abusy and varied life but, as shesaid, she was not the sort of person “who could sit at home and knit socks.”
Folklore A modern term for thebody of traditionalcustoms, superstitions, stories,dances, and songs that have been adopted and maintained within a given community by processes of repetition notreliant on the written word.Along with folk songs and folktales, this broad category of cultural forms embraces all kinds of legends,riddles, jokes, proverbs, games, charms, omens, spells, and rituals, especiallythose of pre-literate societies or social classes. Those forms of verbalexpression that are handed on from one generation or locality to the next byword of mouth are said to constitute anoral tradition.
There isn’t a financialdirector around who wouldn’t like to accelerate cash flowby reducing debtor days- in other words, get customers to pay up faster. InEurope’s top 1,000 quoted companies, nearly one quarter of all invoices areunpaid at any point in time,according to recent research carried out by the ASF organization. This meansthey are sitting on a total of 274bn overdue debt. Most of this is caused bypoor collection practices. According to Jan Porter, ASF’s Managing Director,“You can set up all the systems you want, you can insist on watertight contracts and payment terms, the government caneven introduce late payment legislation, but there are always some debtors who fail to pay on time. Once a payment isoverdue, your first step is to talk to your debtor. You should let them knowthe payment is late and try to find out if there is a dispute about the work,or if your debtor has financial problems. Thisis OK, but Tim Vainio, a chartered accountant, believes that toomany companies are afraid of losing a relationship, and that, before undertaking any action, the focusshould be on recovering as much money as possible, rather than on preserving arelationship.
Inan attempt to lure new students,leading business schools - including Harvard, Stanford, the University ofChicago and Wharton – have moved away from the unofficial admissions and prerequisite of four years’ workexperience and instead have settheir sights on recent college graduates and so-called ‘early career ‘professionals with only a couple years ofwork under the belt.
None of the books in myfather’s dusty old bookcase were forbidden.Yet while I was growing up, I never saw anyone take one down. Most were massive tomes – a comprehensive history ofcivilization, matching volumes of the great works of western literature,numerous others I can no longer recall –that seemed almost refused to shelves thatbowed slightly from decades of steadfast support?
MountEverest called Chomolungma ("goddess mother of the world") in Tibetand Sagarmatha ("goddess of the sky") in Nepal, Mount Everest oncewent by the pedestrian name of Peak XV among Westerners. That was before surveyors established that it was thehighest mountain on Earth, a fact that came as something of a surprise—Peak XVhad seemed lost in the crowd of other formidable Himalayan peaks, many of whichgave the illusion of greaterheight.
In1852, the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India measured Everest's elevation as29,002 feet above sea level. This figure remained the officially accepted height for more than one hundredyears. In 1955, it was adjusted by a mere 26 feet to 29,028 (8,848 m).
Themountain received its official name in 1865 in honor of Sir George Everest, theBritish Surveyor General from 1830—1843 who had mapped the Indian subcontinent.He had some reservations abouthaving his name bestowed on the peak, arguing that the mountain should retainits local appellation, the standard policy of geographical societies.
Beforethe Survey of India, a number of other mountains ranked supreme in the eyes ofthe world. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Andean peak Chimborazowas considered the highest. At a relatively unremarkable 20,561 feet (6,310 m),it is in fact nowhere near the highest, surpassedby about thirty other Andean peaks and several dozen in theHimalayas. In 1809, the Himalayan peak Dhaulagiri (26,810 ft.; 8,172 m) wasdeclared the ultimate, only to be shunted aside in 1840 by Kanchenjunga (28,208ft.; 8,598 m), which today ranks third. Everest's status has been unrivalledfor the last century-and-a-half, but not without a few threats.
Forall his fame and celebration, William Shakespeare remains a mysterious figure with regards to personalhistory. There are just two primary sources forinformation on the Bard: his works, and various legal and church documents that have survived fromElizabethan times. Naturally, there are many gapsin this body of information, which tells us little about Shakespearethe man.
TheEiffel Tower was the tallest building in the world when it was completed in1889. It was built for the World's Fair to demonstratethat iron could be as strong as stone while being infinitelylighter. And in fact the wrought-iron tower is twice as tall as the masonryWashington Monument and yet it weighs 70,000 tons less! It is repainted everyseven years with 50 tons of dark brown paint.
Called"the father of the skyscraper," the Home Insurance Building, constructed in Chicago in 1885 (anddemolished in 1931), was 138 feet tall and 10 stories. It was the firstbuilding to effectively employ a supporting skeletonof steel beams and columns, allowing it to have many more windowsthan traditional masonry structures. But this new construction method madepeople worry that the building would fall down, leading the city to haltconstruction until they could investigate thestructure's safety.
In1929, auto tycoon Walter Chrysler took part in an intense race with the Bank ofManhattan Trust Company to build the world's tallest skyscraper. Just when itlooked like the bank had captured the covetedtitle, workers at the Chrysler Building jacked a thin spire hiddeninside the building through the top of the roof to win the contest(subsequently losing the title four months later to the Empire State Building).Chrysler also decorated his building to mirror his cars, with hubcaps,mudguards, and hood ornaments.
Researchersalready know that spending long periods of time in a zero-gravity environment -- such as that inside theInternational Space Station (ISS) -result in loss of bone density and damage to the body’s muscles. That’s partly why stays aboardthe ISS are limited to sixmonths. And now, a number of NASA astronauts are reporting that their 20/30eyes deteriorated /vision faded afterspending time in space, with many needing glasses once they returned to Earth.
C.S. Lewis, or Jack Lewis, as he preferred to be called, was born in Belfast,Ireland (now Northern Ireland) on November 29, 1898. He was the second son ofAlbert Lewis, a lawyer, and Flora Hamilton Lewis. His older brother, WarrenHamilton Lewis, who was known as Warnie, had been born three years earlier in 1895.
Lewis'searly childhood was relatively happy and carefree. In those days NorthernIreland was not yet plagued bybitter civil strife, and the Lewises were comfortably off. The family home,called Little Lea, was a large, gabled house with dark, narrow passages and anovergrown garden, which Warnie and Jack played in and explored together. There was also alibrary that was crammed with books - two of Jack's favorites were TreasureIsland by Robert Louis Stevenson and The Secret Garden by Frances HodgsonBurnett.
Thissomewhat idyllic boyhood came to an end for Lewis when his mother became illand died of cancer in 1908. Barely a month after her death the two boys weresent away from home to go to boarding school in England.
Lewishated the school, with its strict rules and hard, unsympathetic headmaster, and he missed Belfast terribly.Fortunately for him, the school closed in 1910, and he was able to return toIreland.
Aftera year, however, he was sent back to England to study. This time, the experience proved to be mostly positive.As a teenager, Lewis learned to love poetry, especially the works of Virgil andHomer. He also developed an interest in modern languages, mastering French,German, and Italian.
Accordingto the literature, the history of vaccinationcan be traced back to as early as the 7th century when the monks inIndia tried to immunize themselves by drinking snakevenom. The first vaccination was inoculation with human smallpox, apractice widely carried out in ancient India, Arabia, and China. This method ofvaccination consisted of collecting pus from a patient suffering from mild form of smallpox virus infection and inoculating the sample to a healthy human,which later led to a minor infection. This method was first introduced inEngland by a Greek named E. Timoni. However, this method had a risk ofspreading smallpox in the community and even worsening the health condition ofthe person who received the inoculation. While the use of human smallpoxvaccine was controversial, E.Jenner came up with bovine smallpox vaccine in 1796; this new method also facedcontroversy, but continued to be universalized.Smallpox became a preventable disease by injecting pus extracted from a humaninfected with cowpox virus. Jenner named the substance "vaccine"after the Latin word "vacca" which means "cow," and thusthe process of giving vaccine became "vaccination".
Want to know what will make you happy? Then ask a total stranger— or so says a new study from Harvard University, which shows that anotherperson’s experience is often more informative than your own best guess.
“If you want to know how much you will enjoy an experience, youare better off knowing how much someone else enjoyed it than knowing anythingabout the experience itself,” says Gilbert. “Rather than closing our eyes and imagining the future, weshould examine the experience of those who have been there.
Previous research in psychology, neuroscience, and behavioraleconomics has shown that people have difficulty predicting what they will likeand how much they will like it, which leads them to make a wide variety of poor decisions. Interventionsaimed at improving the accuracy with which people imagine future events have beengenerally unsuccessful.
This summer, 41 UBC alumni and friends participated inexpeditions to the Canadian Arctic and the legendary Northwest Passage.Presentations, conversations and learning accompanied their exploration of thegreat outdoors aboard the Russian-flagged Akademik Ioffe, designed andbuilt in Finland as a scientific research vessel in 1989. Her bridge was opento passengers virtually 24 hours a day. Experts on board presented on topicsincluding climate change, wildlife, Inuit culture and history, and earlyEuropean explorers. UBC professor Michael Byers presented on the issue of Arcticsovereignty, a growing cause of debate as ice melts, new shipping routes open, andnatural resources become accessible. Recommended pre-trip reading was late UBC alumnusPierre Berton’s book, The Arctic Grail.
Before effective anaesthetics, surgery was very crude and verypainful. Before 1800, alcohol and opium had littlesuccess in easing pain during operations. Laughing gas was usedin 1844 in dentistry in the USA, but failed to ease all pain and patients remained conscious. Ether(used from 1846) made patients totally unconscious and lasted a long time.However, it could make patients cough during operations and sick afterwards. Itwas highly flammable and was transported in heavy glass bottles. Chloroform (used from 1847) was veryeffective with few side effects. However, it was difficult to get the doseright and could kill some people because of the effect on their heart. An inhaler helped to regulate thedosage.
Arbitration is amethod of conflict resolution which, with more or less formalized mechanisms,occurs in many political and legal spheres. There are two main characteristics to arbitration. The first isthat it is a voluntary process under which two parties in conflict agreebetween themselves to be bound by the judgment of a third party which has no other authorityover them; the judgment, however, is not legally binding. The second is thatthere is usually no clear body of law or set of rules that must apply; the arbitrator is free, subject to any prior agreement withthe conflicting parties, to decide on whatever basis of justice is deemed suitable.
The United Nations is aninternational organization founded in 1945. Due to its unique internationalcharacter, and the powers vested in its founding Charter, the organization cantake action on a wide range ofissues and provide a forum for its 193 Member States to express their views, through the GeneralAssembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council and otherbodies and committees. The work of the United Nations reaches every corner of the globe. Although best knownfor peacekeeping, peacebuilding, conflict preventionand humanitarian assistance, there are many other ways the UnitedNations and its System (specialized agencies, funds and programmes) affect ourlives and make the world a better place.
EE(energy expenditure) and AVG (active video games). The sedentary videogamescannot meet the minimum exerciseintensities... Playing AVGs increases energy expenditure, but can’t be a replacement of exercise...
Children have sound sleep patterns. They can successfully sleep for 8-9 hours and getup at a fixed time. But teenagers don’t. Their need of early start to schoolsor other schedules can influence theirsleep patterns. Despite these factors, they actually need longer sleep time.
There is a trend of ...generosity. Government ... $2.6b and $... on ... Most funds are from individualdonors. ... mainly fromnon-profit sector, ... with their emphasis on thedisaster relief after Asia tsunami and US hurricane... above the 40-year average. (备选indebtedness)
Thereis a need to disclose business emission.The data of emission can be usedto test which company causes climate change ...... the government campaigners and environmental invigilators (后两个可能互换)
Japan adopted knowledge from China. Thenthe relationship of the two countries halted. Japan explored on its own culture. Japan____ sth. and sth. is adapted to Japanese taste.
Japan ...China.XXX is _____ on one hand or other hand. XXX ... Japan explored on its own.
XXX... is ____from China and then is adapted to Japan taste.
Trip，the worsttrip that I have ever been，connecting flight，land，another
Sales jobs allow for a greatdeal of discretionary time and effort on the part of the sales representatives- especially when compared with managerial, manufacturing, and service jobs.Most sales representatives work independently and outside the immediatepresence of their sales managers. Therefore, some form of goals needs to be in placeas motive and guidetheir performance. Sales personnel are not the onlyprofessionals with performance goals or quotas. Health care professionalsoperating in clinics have daily, weekly, and monthly goals in terms of patientvisits. Service personnel are assigned a number of service calls they must perform during a set time period.Production workers in manufacturing have output goals. So, why are achievingsales goals or quotas such a big deal? The answer to this question can be foundby examining how a firm's other departments are affected by how well thecompany's salespeople achieve their performance goals. The success of thebusiness hinges on the successfulsales of its products and services. Consider all the planning, the financial,production and marketing efforts that go into producingwhat the sales force sells. Everyone depends on the sales force tosell the company's products and services and they eagerly anticipate knowingthings are going.
DanielHarris, a scholar of consumption and style, has observed that until photographyfinally supplanted illustrationas the “primary means of advertising clothing” in the 1950s, glamour inhered less inthe face of the drawing, which was by necessity schematic and generalized, thanin the sketch’s attitude, posture, and gestures, especially in the strangelydainty positions of the hands. Glamour once resided so emphatically in thestance of the model that the faces in the illustrations cannot really be saidto have expressions at all, butangles or tilts. The chin raised upwards in a haughty look; the eyes lowered inan attitude of introspection; the head cocked at an inquisitive or coquettishangle; or the profile presented in sharp outline, emanating power the severitylike an emperor’s bust embossed on a Romancoin.
KathrynMewes does not meet bohemian, hippy parents in her line of work. Typically one,or both, of the parents she sees work in the City of London.
“Professionalsseek professionals,” she says. Originally a nanny, Mewes is now a parentingconsultant, advising couples privately on changing their child’s behaviour, as well as doing corporate seminars forworking parents.
Herclients find they are unprepared for the chaos and unpredictability that havinga child can entail. “Parents are getting older, they have been in control theirwhole lives and been successful.Suddenly a baby turns up and life turns on its head.”
Nicknamedthe “Three-Day Nanny” because of herpledge to fix behavioural problems in children under the age of 12 within threedays, she is filming a new Channel 4 television series demonstrating hertechniques. The role of theparenting consultant – distinct from that of a nanny – has developed, she says,as people are used to buying in expertise, such as personal trainers or, in hercase, parenting advice.
Arguablythe greatest mystery facing humanity today is the prospect that 75% of theuniverse is made up of a substance knownas “dark energy”, about which we have almost no knowledge at all. Since afurther 21% of the universe is made from invisible “dark matter”
(Thelast paragraph hasn’t been found yet, but contains a blank: summarize.)
Acrime is generally a deliberate actthat results in harm, physical or otherwise, toward one or more people, in amanner prohibited by law. The determination of which acts are to be consideredcriminal has varied historically, and continues to do so among cultures andnations. When a crime is committed, a process of discovery, trial by judge orjury, conviction, and punishment occurs. Just as what is considered criminalvaries between jurisdictions, so does the punishment, but elements ofrestitution and deterrence are common.
If you see a movie, or a TVadvertisement, that involves a fluid behaving in an unusual way, it wasprobably made using technology based on the work of a Monash researcher.Professor Joseph Monaghan who pioneered an influential methodfor interpreting the behaviour of liquids that underlies most special effectsinvolving water has been honoured withelection to the Australian Academy of Sciences.
ProfessorMonaghan, one of only 17 members elected in 2011, was recognised for developingthe method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) which has applications inthe fields of astrophysics, engineering and physiology, as well as moviespecial effects.
His researchstarted in 1977 when he tried to use computer simulation to describe theformation of stars and stellar systems. The algorithms available at the timewere incapable of describing the complicatedsystems that evolve out of chaotic clouds of gas in the galaxy.
ProfessorMonaghan, and his colleague Bob Gingold, took the novel and effective approachof replacing the fluid or gas in the simulation with large numbers of particleswith properties that mimicked those of thefluid. SPH has become a central tool in astrophysics, where it is currentlyused to simulate the evolution of the universe after the Big Bang, theformation of stars, and the processes of planet building.
Froma child's point of view, what is the purpose of TV advertising? Is advertisingon TV done to give actors the opportunity to take a rest or practicetheir lines? Or is it done to make people buythings? Furthermore, is the main differencebetween programs and commercials that commercials are for real, whereasprograms are not, or that programs are for kids and commercials for adults? Ashas been shown several times in the literature (e.g. Butter et al. 1981Donohue, Henke, and Donohue 1980 Macklin 1983 and 1987 Robertson and Rossiter1974 Stephens and Stutts 1982), some children are able to distinguishbetween programs and commercials and are awareof the intent of TV advertising, whereasothers are not.
People move to a new regionfor many different reasons. The motivation formoving can come from a combination of what researchers sometimes call 'push andpull factors' - those thatencourage people to leave a region, and those that attract people to a region.Some of the factors that motivate people to move include seeking a better climate, finding more affordablehousing, looking for work or retiring from work, leaving the congestion of city living, wanting a morepleasant environment, and wanting to be near to family and friends. In realitymany complex factors and personal reasons may interactto motivate a person or family to move.
Aherbal is a book of plants, describing their appearance, their properties andhow they may be used for preparing ointments and medicines. The medical use ofplants is recordedon fragments of papyrus and clay tablets from ancient Egypt, Samaria andChina that date back 5,000 years but document traditions far older still. Over700 herbal remedies were detailed in the Papyrus Ebers, an Egyptian textwritten in 1500 BC.
Around65 BC, a Greek physician called Dioscorides wrote a herbal that was translated into Latin and Arabic. Known as ‘De materiamedica’, it became the most influential work on medicinal plants in bothChristian and Islamic worlds until the late 17th century. An illustratedmanuscript copy of the text made in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) survives from the sixth century.
Thefirst printed herbals date from the dawn of European printing in the 1480s.They provided valuable information for apothecaries, whose job it was to makethe pills and potions prescribed byphysicians. In the next century, landmark herbals were produced in England byWilliam Turner, considered to be the father of British botany, and John Gerard,whose illustrations would inspire the floral fabric, wallpaper and tile designsof William Morris four centuries later.
The last tourists may have been leaving the Valley of the Kings on theWest Bank in Luxor but the area in front of the tomb of Tutankhamun remainedfar from deserted. Instead of the tranquillitythat usually descends on the area in the evening it was a hive ofactivity. TV crews trailed masses of equipment, journalists milled andphotographers held their cameras at the ready. The reason? For the first timesince Howard Carter discoveredthe tomb in 1922 the mummy of Tutankhamun was being prepared for publicdisplay.
Inside the subterranean burial chamber Egypt's archaeology supremo ZahiHawass, accompanied by four Egyptologists, two restorers and three workmen,were slowly lifting the mummy from the golden sarcophagus where it has beenrested -- mostly undisturbed -- for more than 3,000 years. The body was thenplaced on a wooden stretcher and transportedto its new home, a high- tech, climate-controlled plexi-glass showcaselocated in the outer chamber of the tomb where, covered in linen, with only theface and feet exposed, it now greets visitors.
Genius,in the popular conception, is inextricably tied up with precocity—doingsomething truly creative, we’re inclined to think, requires the freshness andexuberance and energy of youth. Orson Welles made his masterpiece, “CitizenKane,” at twenty-five. Herman Melville wrote a book a year through his late twenties, culminating, atage thirty-two, with “Moby- Dick.” Mozart wrote his breakthrough Piano ConcertoNo. 9 in E-Flat-Major at the age oftwenty-one. In some creative forms, like lyric poetry, the importance of precocity has hardened intoan iron law. How old was T. S. Eliot when he wrote “The Love Song of J. AlfredPrufrock” (“I grow old . . . I grow old”)? Twenty-three. “Poets peak young,”the creativity researcher JamesKaufman maintains. Mihály Csíkszentmihályi, the author of “Flow,” agrees:“The most creative lyric verse is believed to be that written by the young.”According to the Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner, a leading authority on creativity, “Lyric poetry isa domain where talentis discovered early, burns brightly, and then peters out at an earlyage.”
Sustainable Job Growth is amotto for many governments, especially in the aftermath of a recession. The problemof ‘job quality’ is less often addressed and may be seen as hindering job growth. The sentiment ‘anyjob is better than no job’ may resonate with governments as well as people,especially in the context of high unemployment. However, if the balance between improving the quality of existing jobs and creating new jobsbecomes greatly imbalanced towards the latter, this could increase work stressamong current and future workers,which in turn has health, economic and social costs. A recent British AcademyPolicy Centre Report on stress at work highlights these concerns,and describes the context, determinants and consequences of work-related stressin Britain.
Omnisciencemay be a foible of men, but it is not so of books. Knowledge, as Johnson said,is of two kinds, you may know athing yourself, and you may know where to find it. Now the amount which you mayactually know yourself must, at its best, be limited, but what you may know ofthe sources of information may,with proper training, become almost boundless. And here come the value and use of reference books—theworking of one book in connexion with another—and applying your own intelligence to both. By this means we getas near to that omniscient volume which tells everything as ever we shall get,and although the single volume or work which tells everything does not exist,there is a vast number of reference books in existence, a knowledge and properuse of which is essential to every intelligent person. Necessary as I believereference books to be, they can easily be made to be contributory to idleness, and too mechanical a use shouldnot be made of them.
In the literary world, it was an accepted assumption that the 1970s wasa time of unprecedented growth in homegrown Australian fiction. And everybodywas reading and talking about books by young Australian women.
It is this sort of research - testing ideas about literary history -that is becoming possible with the spread of'Digital Humanities.'
Thewidespread use of artificial light in modern societies means that lightpollution is an increasingly common feature of the environments humans inhabit.This type of pollution is exceptionally highin coastal regions of tropic and temperate zones, as these are areas of highrates of human population growth and settlement. Light pollution is a threatfor many species that inhabit these locations, particularly those whose ecologyor behaviour depends, in some way, onnatural cycles of light and dark. Artificial light is known to have detrimentaleffects on the ecology of sea turtles, particularly at the hatchling stage whenthey emerge from nests on natal beaches and head towards the sea. Under naturalconditions, turtles hatch predominantly at night (although some early morningand late afternoon emergences occur) and show an innate and well-directedorientation to the water, relying mostlyon light cues that attract them toward the brighter horizon above the seasurface. Artificial lighting on beaches is strongly attractive to hatchlingsand can cause them to move away from thesea and interfere with theirability to orient in a constant direction. Ultimately, this disorientation dueto light pollution can lead to death of hatchlings from exhaustion, dehydrationand predation.
(非原文，仅大意。Only the gist. Not the original text.)
Legaldeposit has existed in English law since 1662. It helps to ensure that thenation’s published output (and thereby its intellectualrecord and future published heritage) is collected systematically,to preserve the material for theuse of future generations and to make it available for readers within the designated legaldeposit libraries.
Thelegal deposit system also has benefits forauthors and publishers:
· Deposited publications are made available tousers of the deposit libraries on their premises, are preserved for the benefit of futuregenerations, and become part of the nation’s heritage.
· Publications are recorded in the online catalogues, and become an essential research resource for generations to come.
Musicis an important part of our lives. We connect and interact with it daily anduse it as a way of projecting our self-identities to the people around us. The musicwe enjoy – whether it’s country or classical, rock n’ roll or rap – reflects who we are.
Butwhere did music, at its core, first come from? It’s a puzzling question thatmay not have a definitive answer. One leadingresearcher, however, has proposed that the key to understanding theorigin of music is nestled snugly in the loving bond between mother and child.
Ina lecture at the University of Melbourne, Richard Parncutt, an Australian-bornprofessor of systematic musicology, endorsed the idea that music originallyspawned from ‘motherese’ – the playful voices mothers convey/adopt when speaking to infants and toddlers.
Asthe theory goes, increased human brain sizes caused by evolutionary changesoccurring between one and 2,000,000 years ago resulted in earlier births, morefragile infants and a critical need forstronger relationships between mothers and their newborn babies.
Accordingto Parncutt, who is based at the University of Graz in Austria, ‘motherese’arose as a way to strengthen this maternal bond and to help ensure an infant’s survival.
Downthe road, the study authors write, a better understanding of sharks’ personalities may help scientists learnmore about what drives their choice of things like prey and habitat. Some sharks are shy, and some areoutgoing; some are adventurous,and some prefer to stick close to what they know, information that could proveuseful in making sense of larger species-wide behaviour patterns.
Servingon a jury is normally compulsory for individuals who are qualified for jury service. A jury is intended to be an impartial panel capableof reaching a verdict. There are often proceduresand requirements, including a fluent understanding of the languageand the opportunity to test juror’s neutrality or otherwise exclude jurors whoare perceived as likely to be less than neutralor partial to one side.
(非原文，仅大意。Only the gist. Not the original text.)
You can study anywhere.Obviously, some places are better than others.Libraries, study lounges or private rooms are best. Above all, the place youchoose to study should not be distracting.Distractions can build up, andthe first thing you know, you're out of time and out of luck. Make choosing agood physical environment a part of your study habits.
Cuteness in offspring is a potent protective mechanism thatensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants.Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a“kindchenschema” (infant schema) where infant facial features serve as “innatereleasing mechanisms” for instinctual caregiving behaviours. We proposeextending the concept of cuteness beyond visual features to include positiveinfant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studieslinks this extended concept of cuteness to simple “instinctual” behaviours andto caregiving, protection and complex emotions. We review how cuteness supportskey parental capacities by igniting fast privileged neural activity followed byslower processing in large brain networks also involved in play, empathy, andperhaps even higher-order moral emotions.
Discriminationagainst women has been alleged in hiring practices for many occupations, but itis extremely difficult to demonstrate sex-biased hiring. A change in the way symphony orchestras recruitmusicians provides an unusual way to test for sex-biased hiring. To overcomepossible biases in hiring, most orchestras revised their audition policies inthe 1970s and 1980s.
Amajor change involved the use of blind' auditions with a screen' to conceal the identity of the candidatefrom the jury. Female musicians in the top five symphony orchestras in theUnited States were less than 5% of all players in 1970 but are 25% today. Weask whether women were more likely to beadvanced and/or hired with the use of blind' auditions. Using datafrom actual auditions in an individual fixed-effects framework, we find thatthe screen increases by 50% theprobability a woman will be advanced outof certain preliminary rounds. The screen also enhances, by severalfold, thelikelihood a female contestant will be the winner in the final round. Usingdata on orchestra personnel, the switch to blind' auditions can explain between30% and 55% of the increase in the proportion female among new hires andbetween 25% and 46% of the increase in the percentage female in the orchestrassince 1970.
Fora start, we need to change our concept of'retirement', and we need to change mindsets arising from earlier governmentpolicy which, in the face of high unemployment levels, encouraged matureworkers to take early retirement. Today, government encourages them to delay their retirement.
Wenow need to think of retirement as a phased process, where mature age workers gradually reduce their hours, and wherethey have considerable flexibility in how they combine their work and non worktime.
Letus then suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas:- How comes it to be furnished?Whence comes it by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on itwith an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason andknowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from experience.
Equally critical is the challenge of water security. The UN EnvironmentProgramme (UNEP) has pointed out that about one- third of the world'spopulation lives in countries with moderate to high water stress, with a disproportionateimpact on the poor.
And increasing competition over this scarce but vital resource may fuelinstability and conflict within states as well as between states.
UNEP has long been actively addressing the water issue together withpartner UN agenciesand other organizations. Looking ahead, theUN can do more to build synergies of technology, policy and capacity in thisfield. In this regard, events like the annual World Water Week in Stockholmcome to the forefront of the public mind when talking about championing waterissues.
Theallure of the book has always been negative and positive, for the texts and pictures between the covers havehelped many young readers to discover andgrasp the world around them in a pleasurable and meaningful way. But the allurehas also enabled authors and publishers to prey upon youngreaders' dispositions and desires and to sellthem a menu that turns out to be junk food.
Statisticaltheory plays an important role in diverse aspects of society, ... that benefit humanity. Statistical analysis are... initiated ... //Manufacturers can improve their strain of products through the effective use of statistical analysis in qualitycontrol
In reality, however, the causes of truancy and non-attendanceare diverse and multifaceted. There are asmany causes of non-attendance as there are non-attenders. Each child has herown uniquestory, and whilst there may often be certainidentifiable factors in common, each non-attending child demands and deservesan individual response, tailored to meet herindividual needs. This applies equallytothe 14-year-old who fails to attend school because a parent is terminally ill,the overweight 11 -year-old who fails to attend because he is embarrassedabout changing for PE in front of peers, the15-year-old who is 'bored' by lessons, and to the seven-year-old who is teasedin the playground because she does not wear the latest designer- label clothes.
Windis formed by the circulation of air. The sun heats up some parts of the sea andthe land. The air among the hot spotwarms up and rises. The cold air drops because it is heavy. Some wind circulates within a small area. Others blowin the entire globe.
新 Surface Water: Chemicals in the farming,like corns and soybeans .... runs off into surface waters such as streams,rivers. The surface water bodies ... are drinkingwater. The surface water treatment need to filter them out in order to balance ...,but costs are high. We hope ... bind with soil(不确定，其他选项有farming, crops, treatment) steadily, remove chemicals quickly and ... // ... toreduce pollution.
Youhave about 30 minutes to answer each question. You must take account of how many marks are available for each part when you answer it. Even if youthink you can write more, don't spend 15 minutes answering a part worth only 5marks. Leave space at the end of your answer and come back to it if you havetime to spare later.
Andif you can't think of an answer to some part, leave a space and move on to thenext part. Don't write about something else if you don't know the correctanswer -- this is just a waste of your valuabletime (and the examiner's).
Australiaand New Zealand have many common links. Both countries were recently settled byEuropeans, are predominantly English speaking and in that sense, share a commoncultural heritage. Although inclose proximity to one another, both countries are geographically isolated andhave small populations by world standards.They have similar histories and enjoy close relations on many fronts.
Interms of population characteristics,Australia and New Zealand have much in common. Both countries have minorityindigenous populations, and during the latter half of the 20th century haveseen a steady stream of migrants from a variety of regions throughout theworld. Both countries have experienced similardeclines in fertility since the high levels recorded during the baby boom, andalongside this have enjoyed the benefits of continually improving lifeexpectancy. One consequence of these trends is that both countries are facedwith an ageing population, and the associatedchallenge of providing appropriate care and support for this growinggroup within the community.
Descendantsof the Maya living in Mexico still sometimes refer to themselves as “the cornpeople.” The phrase is not intended as metaphor. Rather, it’s meant to acknowledge their abiding dependence on this miraculous grass, the staple of their diet for almost 9,000years. Forty percent of the calories a Mexican eats in a day comes directlyfrom corn, most of it in the form of tortillas. So when a Mexican says I ammaize or corn walking, it is simply a statement of fact: the very substance ofthe Mexicans body is to a considerable extent a manifestationof this plant.
Volcanoesblast more than 100 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere everyyear but the gas is usually harmless.When a volcano erupts, carbon dioxide spreads out into the atmosphere and isn'tconcentrated in one spot. Butsometimes the gas gets trapped underground underenormous pressure. If it escapes to the surface in a dense cloud, it can push out oxygen-rich air andbecome deadly.
Althoughfor centuries preparations derived from living matterwere applied to wounds to destroy infection,the fact that a microorganism is capable ofdestroying one of another species was not establisheduntil the latter half of the 19th century. When Pasteur noted theantagonistic effect of other bacteria on the anthrax organism and pointed outthat this action might be put to therapeuticuse.
In these distant times the sunwas seen to make its daily journey acrossthe sky. At night the moon appeared. Every new night the moon waxed or waned alittle and on a few nights it did not appear at all. At night the great dome ofthe heavens was dotted with tiny specks of light. They became known as the stars. It was thoughtthat every star in the heavens had its own purpose and that the secrets of the universe could bediscovered by making a study of them.
Symbiosisis a biological relationship in which two species livein close proximity to each other and interactregularly in such a way as to benefit one or both ofthe organisms. When both partners benefit, this varietyof symbiosis is known as mutualism.
TheEdo-Tokyo Tatemono En is an open-air architectural museum, but could be betterthought of as a park. Thirty buildings from the 19th and early 20th centuriesfrom all around Tokyo wererestored and relocated to the space, where they can be explored by futuregenerations to come. The buildings are a collection of houses and businesses,shops, and bathhouses, all of which would have been present on a typicalmiddle-class street from Edoera to Showa-era Tokyo. The west section is residential (resident / residence / residing),with traditional thatched roof bungalows of the 19th century. Meiji-era housesare also on view, constructed in a more Western style after Japan opened itsborders in 1868. The Musashino Sabo Café occupies the ground (base) floor of one such house,where visitors can enjoy a cup of tea. Grand residences like that of KorekiyoTakahashi, an early 20th century politician assassinated over his controversialpolicies, demonstrate how the upper class lived during that time period. Theeast section is primarily businesses from the 1920s and ’30s, preserved withtheir wares on display. Visitors are free towander (wandering / wander) through a kitchenware shop, a florist’s,an umbrella store, a bar, a soy sauce shop, a tailor’s, a cosmetics shop, andan inn complete with an operational noodle shop.
Opportunitycost incorporates the notion of scarcity:No matter what we do, there is always a trade-off. We must trade off one thingfor another because resources are limited and can be used in different ways.
(非原文，仅大意。Only the gist. Not the original text.)
(非原文，仅大意。Only the gist. Not the original text.)