【易学PTE】真题鸡精-阅读FIB (PART 3)(更新日期:2018-11-26)

1      Psychological Theories

Attemptsto apply psychological theories to education can falter on the translation ofthe theory into educational practice. Often, this translation is not clear. Therefore, when a program does notsucceed, it is not clear whether the lack of success was due to the inadequacyof the theory or the inadequacy of the implementation of the theory. A set of basic principles for translating atheory into practice can help clarify just what an educational implementationshould (and should not) look like. This article presents 12 principles fortranslating a triarchic theory of successful intelligence into educationalpractice.

2      Private Schools in UK

Privateschools in the UK are redoubling their marketing efforts to foreigners. Almosta third of the 68,000 boarding pupils at such schools already come from overseas. But now, withmany UK residents unwilling orunable to afford the fee - top boarding schools are edging towards £30,000($49,759) a year - and a cultural shift awayfrom boarding, many schools are looking abroad to survive.

Overseasstudents now account for about...

3      Environmentalists

Althoughenvironmentalists have been warning aboutthis situation for decades, many other people are finally beginning to realisethat if we don't act soon it will be too late. The good news is that more andmore businesses and governments are beginning to understand that without a healthy environment the globaleconomy and everything that depends on it will be seriously endangered. Andthey are beginning to take positive action.

4      Part-time Jobs

Studentsare increasingly finding it necessary to obtain employment in order tosubsidize their income during their time in higher education. The extra income helps to pay for necessities,to maintain a social life and to buy clothes, and holding a part-time job helpsstudents to gain skills for lifeafter university or college. Using a part-time job to cut down on borrowing isa sound investment, as it reduces the debt thatwill be waiting to be paid off after graduation.

Howmany hours students are currently working each week during term-time is notreally certain. Some institutions advise that students should not work morethan ten hours a week, and there are others that set a higher recommend limit of fifteen hours a week. There is nodoubt that some students exceed evenfifteen hours a week.

5      Exams looming

It's thattime again! Exams looming, essays or reports outstanding and you wonder wherethe years gone already. You start wondering howyou're going to cope with it all. Fear and anxietyareinsidiousthings and they can take hold if you don't dosomething about them. This amounts to a bad type of stress which is just whatyou don't need, especially at this time of year. This is not to say that allanxiety is bad, however.

A limited amount of anxiety can help you to bemore motivated and more purposeful.It can help you to plan your work and to think more clearly and logically about it. In other words, it canhelp you stay on top of things. So how can you limit your stress and stay incontrol? There are a number of practical things you can do, even at this latestage before the exams. Don't give up hope, even if you start to feelsnowballed when you think of the all the work you have to do. First of all,it's essential to get yourself organized. Sit down at your desk and make astart on writing down all the things you have to do to prepare for the exams. If you feel there'stoo much to do, then work out priorities for your work. Outstanding assignmentsshould take priority but make sure to leave time for revisionof your lecture notes.

6      Bizarre Universe

Itseems we live in a bizarre Universe. One of the greatest mysteries in the wholeof science is the prospect that 75% of the Universe is made up from amysterious substance known as‘Dark Energy’, which causes an acceleration of the cosmic expansion. Since afurther 21% of the Universe is made up from invisible ‘Cold Dark Matter’ thatcan only be detected through itsgravitational effects, the ordinary atomic matter making up the rest isapparently only 4% of the total cosmic budget.

Thesediscoveries require a shift inour perception as great as that made after Copernicus revelation that the Earth moves around theSun. This lecture will start by reviewing the chequered history of Dark Energy,not only since Einstein’s proposal for a similar entity in 1917, but by tracingthe concept back to Newton’s ideas. This lecture will summarise the current evidence for DarkEnergy and future surveys in which UCL is heavily involved: the “Dark EnergySurvey”, the Hubble Space Telescope and the proposed Euclid space mission.

7      Science Warm Global Warming

Youmay well ask why science did not warn us of global warming sooner; I think thatthere are several reasons. We were from the 1970s until the end of the century distracted by the important global problemof stratospheric ozone depletion,which we knew was manageable. We threw all our efforts into it and succeededbut had little time to spend on climate change. Climate science was alsoneglected because twentieth-century science failed to recognize the true nature of Earth as a responsive self-regulating entity.Biologists were so carried away by Darwin’s great vision that they failed tosee that living things were tightly coupled to their material environment andthat evolution concerns the whole Earth system with living organisms an integral part of it. Earth is not theGoldilocks planet of the solar system sitting at the right place for life. Itwas in this favourable state some two billion years ago but now our planet hasto work hard, against ever increasing heat from the Sun, to keep itself habitable. We have chosen the worst oftimes to add to its difficulties.

8      Fiction and Life

Theprecise relationship between fiction and life has been debated extensively. Most modern critics agree that, whateverits apparent factual content or verisimilitude, fiction is finally to beregarded as a structured Imitation of life and should not be confused with aliteral transcription of lifeitself. While fiction is a work of the imagination rather than reality, it can also be based closely onreal events, sometimes experienced by the author. In a work of fiction, theauthor is not the same as thenarrator, the voice that tells the story. Authors maintain a distance fromtheir characters. Sometimes that distance is obvious for instance, if a malewriter tells a story from the point of view of a female character. Other timesit is not so obvious, especially if we know something of the author’s life andthere are clear connections between the story and the author s life. The writerof fiction is free to choose his or her subject matter and is free to invent,select, and arrange fictionalelements to achieve his or herpurpose. The elements of fiction are the different components that make up awork of fiction. All literature explores a theme or significant truth expressedin various elements such as character, plot, setting, point of view, style, andtone that are essential and specific to each work of fiction. All of these elements bind a literary workinto a consistent whole and give it unity. Understanding these elements canhelp the reader gain insight about life,human motives, and experience. Such insight is one of the principal aims of an effective work of fiction; whenreaders are able to perceive it,they develop a sense of literary judgment that is capable of enriching theirlives. The following sections describe elements that should be considered inthe analysis of fiction.

9      Steven Pinker

StevenPinker, a cognitive psychologist best known for his book “The LanguageInstinct”, has called music “auditory cheesecake, an exquisite confectioncrafted to tickle the sensitive spots of at least six of our mental faculties.”If it vanished from our species,he said, “the rest of our lifestyle would be virtuallyunchanged.” Others have argued that, on the contrary, music, along with art andliterature, is part of what makes people human; its absence would have abrutalising effect. Philip Ball, a British science writer and an avid musicenthusiast, comes down somewhere in the middle. He says that music is ingrainedin our auditory, cognitive and motor functions. We have a music instinct as much as a language instinct,and could not rid ourselves of it if we tried.

10   Sydney

Sydneyis becoming effective in making the best of its limited available unconstrainedland... [comparable, patronage, affordability, consumption]

11   High-Protein Diet

In our studies, those peopleon a high-protein diet lost the same amount of weight... [observed, participants,provide,fortified]

12   A Bonus of Dendrochronology

...............Abonus of dendrochronology is that the width and substructure of each ring reflect the amount of rain and the season at which the rain fell during thatparticular year. Thus, tree ring studies also allow one to reconstruct past climate; e.g., a series of wide ringsmeans a wet period, and a series ofnarrow rings means a drought.

13   Higher Education Qualifications

Highereducation qualifications provide a substantial advantagein the labour market. Higher education graduatesare less likely to be unemployed andtend to have higher incomes thanthose without such qualifications. Having a highly educated workforce can also lead to increased productivity andinnovation and make Australia more competitivein the global market.

14   Just-in-time

‘Just-in-time’is a management philosophy and not a technique. It originally referred to theproduction of goods to meet customer demand exactly,in time, quality and quantity, whether the‘customer’ is the final purchaser of the product or another process further along the production line. It hasnow come to mean producing with minimum waste.‘Waste’ is taken in its most general sense and includes time and resources aswell as materials.

15   [wolf] =A big, bad idea?

Fromthe wolf’s perspective, this is clearly good news. But it also had beneficialeffects on the ecology of the park, according to a study published in 2004 byWilliam Ripple and Robert Beschta from Oregon State University. In their paperin Bio Science, the two researchers showed that reintroducingthe wolves was correlated with increased growth of willow and cottonwood in the park. Why?Because grazing animals such as elk were avoiding sites from which they couldn’teasily escape, the scientists claimed. And as the woody plants and treesgrew taller and thicker, beaver colonies expanded.

16   Water and Land temperature

Duringthe day, the sun heats up both the ocean surface and the land. Water is a good absorber of the energyfrom the sun. The land absorbs much of the sun's energy as well. However, waterheats up much more slowly than land and so the air above the land will be warmer compared to the air over the ocean.The warm air over the land will rise throughout the day, causing low pressureat the surface. Over the water, high surface pressure will form because of thecolder air. To compensate, theair will sink over the ocean. The wind will blow from the higher pressure overthe water to lower pressure over the land causing the sea breeze. The seabreeze strength will vary depending on the temperature difference between the land and the ocean.

17   Colorful Poison Frogs

Colorfulpoison frogs in the Amazon owe their great diversityto ancestors that leapt into the region from the Andes Mountainsseveral times during the last 10 million years, a new study from The Universityof Texas at Austin suggests. This is the first study to show that the Andeshave been a major source ofdiversity for the Amazon basin, one of the largest reservoirs of biological diversity on Earth. The findingruns counter to the idea thatAmazonian diversity is the result of evolution only within the tropical forest itself. “Basically, theAmazon basin is a melting pot for South American frogs,” says graduate studentJuan Santos, lead author of the study. “Poison frogs there have come frommultiple places of origin, notably the Andes Mountains, over many millions ofyears. We have shown that you cannot understand Amazonian biodiversity bylooking only in the basin. Adjacentregions have played a major role.”

18   Fiber segments

Thetrigger point causes the rest of the fiber segments to be stretched to capacity. It becomes a tightband. Normally the regular contracting and releasing of these little segmentscirculates blood in the capillaries that supply them (the segments) with theirnutrients. When they hold this contraction,blood flow is stopped to that area, there is not an oxygen supply, and wasteproducts are not pushed out. Thetrigger point then sends out pain signals until the trigger point is put in aposition of rest again.

19   Genetic Test for PD

WhileFlorey researchers have also created a genetic test for PD (10% of PD cases arecaused by genetic factors), this new test has a broader application by screening for manydifferent types of PD and monitoring treatment, as well as measuring the effectiveness of drugs being developed totreat the disease.

DrQiao-Xin Li and colleagues from The University of Melbourne and The MentalHealth Research Institute of Victoria, along with Prof Malcolm Horne from theHoward Florey Institute, found people with PD had low levels of thebrain-secreted protein ‘alpha-synuclein' in their blood, while people without PD had high levels ofthe protein.

ProfHorne said the test they developed measured alpha-synuclein levels in blood.“Currently there is no specific PD diagnostic test so doctors rely on theirobservations to make a diagnosis, which means some patients may not beprescribed the most suitable medication and around 15% of those diagnosed may actually be suffering fromsomething else,” Prof Horne said.

Furtherstudies are required to establish whether this test can distinguish between people who areresponsive to treatment and those who are not,” he said. The researchers arenow conducting a large-scale study to determine the effectiveness of the test,to discover whether it is applicable for all types of PD, and to find out if itcan measure the rate of progression andseverity of the disease.

20   Children skip school

Childrenwho skip school are increasingly on family holidays, government figuresrevealed today.
Fewer children played truant thisspring term compared with the spring term last year. Children missed 3munauthorised days of school last term, compared with 3.7m days of school in thesame period last year.

Buta hardcore group of truants - 6%of the school population - who account for more than three-quarters of allthose on unauthorised absence, are more likely to be on a family holiday thanthey were in the same period lastyear.
Some 1.2% of all absence was for family holidays not agreed by their school last term, compared with 0.9% for thesame term last year.

Morethan 60% of all absences were for illness, the same figure as last year.

21   Disadvantage in Early Childhood

Disadvantagein early childhood poses multiple risks to children’s development. Factors suchas low socioeconomic status, long-term unemployment of parents, and socialisolation may have lasting impacts ona child’s chance of reaching their full potential. Whilst not eliminatingdisadvantage, preschool education can help to lessenthe effects of these risk factors and can provide children with abetter start to school. However, some of these factors may also be barriers to preschool attendance forgroups that would benefit most from preschool education. In Australia, theearly years of children’s education is the responsibility of man government andnon-government agencies and it occurs in a range of settings. Preschool isaimed at children around four years of age to preparethem for compulsory schooling from the age of six years. In moststates and territories, children can start full-time schooling at five years ofage, when they enrol in a kindergarten or preparatory year. In 2001, just overhalf of five year olds (57%) were at school with about a third (34%) attendingpreschool. While in some states and territories children can commence preschool before they turn four,participation rates for three year olds are much lower than four year olds (24%compared with 56% for four year olds in 2001). The preschool participation rateof four year olds in 2001 (56%) was similar to the rate in 1991 (58%).

22   Corporate Culture

Thearticle subjects the assumptions and prescriptions of the ‘Corporate Culture’literature to critical scrutiny. The body ofthe article is devoted to teasing out the distinctivebasis of its appeal compared withearlier management theory. It is seen tobuild upon earlier efforts (eg ‘theory Y’) to constitute a self-discipliningform of employee subjectivity by asserting that ‘practical autonomy’ is conditional upon the development of a strong corporateculture. The paper illuminates the dark side of this project by drawing attention to the subjugating andtotalitarian implications of its excellence/qualityprescriptions. To this end, parallels are drawn with the philosophy of control favouredby the Party in Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. Specifically, the papercritiques the doublethink’ contention that autonomy can be realized inmonocultural conditions that systematically constrainopportunities to wrestle with competing values standpoints and theirassociated life projects.

23   The Bridge to Pop

Inthe U.S., artists in the mid-1950s began to create a bridge to Pop. Strongly influenced by Dada and its emphasis on appropriation and everyday objects, artistsincreasingly worked with collage,consumer products, and a healthy dose of irony. Jasper Johns reimagined iconic imagery like the American flag; RobertRauschenberg employed silk-screen printings and found objects; and Larry Riversused images of mass-produced goods. All three are considered American forerunners of Pop.

24   Purpose of TV Advertising

Froma child's point of view, what is the purpose of TV advertising? Is advertisingon TV done to give actors the opportunity to take a rest or practice their lines?Or is it done to make people buy things? Furthermore, is the main difference between programs andcommercials that commercials are for real, whereas programs are not, or thatprograms are for kids and commercials for adults? As has been shown severaltimes in the literature, some children are able to distinguish between programs and commercials and are aware of the intent of TV advertising,whereas others are not.

25   People need exercise

Onething is certain. Most people do not get enough exercise in their ordinary routines. All of the advances ofmodern technology — from electric canopeners to power steering — have made life easier, more comfortable and muchless physically demanding. Yetour bodies need activity, especially if they are carrying around too much fat. Satisfying this need requires adefinite plan, and a commitment.

26   Radioactivity

Sowhy is it a concern? it is because radioactivityis invisible and unsensed, and for that reason is perceived as scary nevertheless, we understand quite well theradiation levels to which people can be exposedwithout harm, and those levels are orders of magnitude above the typical backgroundlevels.

27   Allergies

Allergiesare abnormal immune system reactions to things that are typically harmless tomost people. When you’re allergic to something, your immune system mistakenly believes that this substance isharmful to your body. Substances that cause allergic reactions — such ascertain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines — are known as allergens. In anattempt to protect the body, theimmune system produces IgE antibodies to that allergen. Those antibodies thencause certain cells in the body to release chemicalsinto the bloodstream, one of which is histamine. The histamine then acts on a person's eyes, nose, throat,lungs, skin, or gastrointestinal tract and causes the symptoms of the allergicreaction. Future exposure to that same allergen will trigger this antibodyresponse again. This means that every time you come into contact with thatallergen, you'll have an allergic reaction.

28   Selling Price

Oncean organization has its product to sell, it must then determine the appropriate price to sell itat. The price is set by balancing many factors including supply-and-demand,cost, desired profit competition, perceived value, and market behavior.Ultimately, the final price is determined by what the market is willing to exchange for the product. Pricing theorycan be quite complex because so many factorsinfluence what the purchaser decidesis a fair value.

29   Bhutan

Bhutanis the last standing Buddhist Kingdom in the World and, until recently, has preserved much of their culture since the17th century by avoiding globalization and staying isolated from the worldInternet, television, and western dress were banned from the country up untilten years ago. But over the past ten years globalization has begun to change inBhutan, but thing remain perfectly balanced.

Bhutanis the only country in the world that has a 'GNH.’ You may think GNH is justanother statistically based termwith no real life application, but it refers to “Gross National Happiness.” Theprocess of measuring GNH began when Bhutan opened to globalization. It measurespeople s quality of life, and makes sure that “material and spiritualdevelopment happen together.” Bhutan has done an amazing Job of finding thisbalance. Bhutan has continually been (ranked) as the happiest country in all ofAsia, and the eighth Happiest Country in the world according to Business Week.In 2007 Bhutan had the second fastest growing GDP in the world, at the sametime as maintaining theirenvironment and cultural identity.

Bhutanis the only Buddhist Kingdom in the world; Mahayana Buddhism is the officialreligion of Bhutan. Over two thirds of the people are Buddhist, and Buddhism issupported by the government both politically and economically. The governmentgives subsidies to Buddhistmonasteries, shrines, monks and other Buddhist programs.

30   Impressionist Painters

Early impressionist painterswere considered radical in theirtime because they broke many of the rules of the picture-making that had beenset by earlier generations. Theyfound many of their subjects inlife around them rather than in history, which was then the accepted source of subject matter for paintings.

31   Bach in Venice and Germany

Thosewere his halcyon days, when his music was heard constantly in Venice and hisinfluence blanketed Europe. Hespent much of his time on the road, performingand overseeing productions of his music. In Germany, Bach studiedVivaldi's scores, copied them for performance and arranged some for other instruments.

32   Australia

Australiais a dynamic multi-cultural society, viewed by many as the world's mostdesirable place to live. Here Frank Welsh traces Australia’s intriguing andvaried history to examine howthis society emerged, from itsancient Aborigine tribes and earliest British convict settlements to today’s modern nation - onethat retains strong links withits colonial past but is increasinglyindependent and diverse.

33   Health professionals

Peoplewho visit health professionals tend to be older than the general population, because illnessincreases with age. However, the proportion ofthe population who visited complementary health therapists was highest betweenthe ages 25 and 64 years. The lower rates for people aged 65 years and over contrasted with the rate of visits toother health professionals which increased steadily with increasing age. Thereasons for this difference might include lower levels of acceptance of complementary therapies byolder people. Alternatively, older people may have different treatmentpriorities than do younger people because their health on average is worsewhile their incomes are generally lower.

34   Agrarian parties

Agrarianparties are political parties chiefly representing the interests of peasantsor, more broadly, the rural sector of society. The extent to which they areimportant, or whether they evenexist, depends mainly on two factors.
One, obviously, is the size of an identifiable peasantry, or the size of therural relative to the urbanpopulation. The other is a matter of social integration: for agrarian parties to be important, therepresentation of countryside or peasantry must not be integrated with the other major sections of society. thus a country might possess a sizeablerural population, but have an economic system in which the interests of thevoters were predominantly related to their incomes, not to their occupations orlocation; and in such a country the political system would be unlikely toinclude an important agrarian party.

35   Concept of Culture

Manypeople today think of culture in the way that it was thought of in Europeduring the 18th and early 19th centuries. This conceptof culture reflected inequalities within European societies andtheir colonies around the world. This understanding of culture equates culturewith civilization and contrasts both with nature or non-civilization. Accordingto this understanding of culture, some countries are more civilized thanothers, and some people are more cultured than others. Anything that doesn’tFIT into this category is labeled as chaos or anarchy. From this perspective,culture is closely tied to cultivation, which is the progressive refinement ofhuman behavior.

Inpractice, culture referred to elite goods and activities such as haute cuisine,high fashion or haute couture, museum-caliber art and classical music. The wordcultured referred to people who knew about and took part in these activities.For example, someone who used culture in this sense might argue that classical music is more refinedthan music by working-class people, such as jazz or the indigenous musictraditions of aboriginal peoples.

36   The wholeness of thought

Thewriter-or, for that matter, the speaker conceives his thought whole, as aunity, but must express it in a line of words; the reader- or listener-musttake this line of symbols and from it reconstructthe original wholeness of thought. There is little difficulty in conversation, becausethe listener receives innumerable cues from the physical expressions of thespeaker; there is a dialogue, and the listener can cut in at any time. The advantage of group discussion isthat people can overcome linear sequence of words by converging on ideas from different directions; which makesfor wholeness of thought. But the reader is confronted by line upon line ofprinted symbols, without benefits of physical toneand emphasis or the possibility of dialogue or discussion.

37   Life changes

Research has suggested thatmajor stresses in our lives are life changes,for example, moving house, marriage or relationship breakdown. Work-relatedfactors, including unemploymentand boredom, are also common causes ofstress Differences in personality may also playa part.

38   People’s savings

Friedman showed that, whilepeople do save more when they earn more, it is onlyto spend later. Those in work save against a time of sickness, unemploymentor old age - but because the sick, unemployed and elderly spend their savings, overall consumption does not fall as people getricher.

39   Milky Way System

Starsand the material between them are almost always found in gigantic stellar systems called galaxies. Our owngalaxy, the Milky Way System, happens to be one of the two largest systems inthe Local Group of two dozen or so galaxies. The other is the Andromeda galaxy;it stretches more than onehundred thousand light-years from one end to the other, and it is located about two million light-yearsdistant from us.

40   The United Nations Library

TheDag Hammarskjold Library at United Nations Headquarters in New York is alibrary designated to facilitate the work of the United Nations and focusesmainly on the needs of the UN Secretariat and diplomatic missions. Anyone witha valid United Nations Headquarters grounds pass,including specialized agencies, accredited media and NGO staff, is able tovisit the library. Due to security constraintsin place at the United Nations Headquarters complex, the library is not open tothe general public.

41   The amount of sleep

Theamount of sleep you need depends on many factors,especially your age. Newborns sleep between 16 and 18 hours a day and preschoolchildren should sleep between 10 and 12 hours. Older children and teens need atleast nine hours to be well rested. For most adults, seven to eight hours anight appears to the best amount of sleep. However, for some people, “enoughsleep” may be as few as five hours or as many as 10 hours of sleep.

Asyou get older, your sleeping patterns change.Older adults tend to sleep more lightly and awaken more frequently in the nightthan younger adults. This can have many causes including medical conditions andmedications used to treat them. But there’s no evidence that older adults needless sleep than younger adults.

Gettingenough sleep is important to your health because it boosts your immune system, which makes your bodybetter able to fight disease. Sleep is necessary for your nervous system towork properly. Too little sleep makes you drowsy and unable to concentrate. Italso impairs memory and physical performance.

Sohow many hours of sleep are enough for You? Experts say that if you feel drowsyduring the day — even during boring activities — you are not getting enoughsleep. Also, quality of sleep is just as importantas quantity. People whose sleep is frequently interrupted or cutshort are not getting quality sleep.

Ifyou experience frequent daytime sleepiness, even after increasing the amount ofquality sleep you get, talk to your doctor. He or she may be able to identify the cause of sleep problems andoffer advice on how to get a better night’s sleep.

42   Civil society and the market

Fortoo long we have held preconceived notions of ‘the’ market and ‘the’ state thatwere seemingly independent of local societies and cultures. The debate aboutcivil society ultimately is about how culture, market and state relate to each other. Concern about civilsociety, however, is not only relevant to central and eastern Europe and thedeveloping world. It is very much of interestto the European Union as well. The Civil Dialogue Initiated by theCommission in the 1990s was a first attempt by the EU to give the institutionsof society-and not only governments and businesses-a voice at the policy-makingtables in Brussels. The EU, like other international institutions, has a longway to go in trying to accommodate thefrequently divergent interests of non-governmental organisations and citizengroups. There is increasing recognition thatinternational and national governments have to open up to civil societyinstitutions.

43   Rudman

Rudmanlooks at how a poor understanding of Maths has led historians to falseconclusions about the Mathematical sophisticationof early societies. Rudman's final observation-that ancient Greeceenjoys unrivalled progress in thesubject while failing to teach itat school- leads to a radical punchline;Mathematics could be better learnt after we leaveschool.

44   Cause of unemployment

Onecause of unemployment may be downswings in the trade cycle, i.e. periods ofrecession. Another explanation of wide-scale unemployment refers to structuralemployment. structural unemploymentarises from longer-term changes in the economy, affecting specific industries, regions andoccupations. Structural unemployment often explains regional unemployment. Someregions of the UK such as Central Scotland, and the North-West have higherrates of unemployment because the traditionalheavy industries which located therehave gone into decline as they are replaced bycheaper imports from abroad. The new high-tech industries based on newtechnologies tend to be based in the South-East and along particular growthcorridors.

45   Good customer service

Goodcustomer service relates to the service you and your employees provide before,during and after a purchase. For example, it's how you interact with your customers. Improvingyour customer service skills can lead to greater customer satisfaction and amore enjoyable experience for them.

Nomatter the size of your business good customer service needs be at the heart ofyour business model if you wish to be successful. It is important to providegood customer service; to all types of customers, including potential, new and existing customers.Although it can take extra resources, time and money, good customer serviceleads to customer satisfaction which can generate positive word-of-mouth for your business, keep yourcustomers happy and encourage them to purchase from your business again. Goodcustomer service can help your business grow and prosper.

46   UNEP

Equitableand sustainable management of water resources is a major global challenge.About one third of the world’s population lives in countries with moderate tohigh water stress, with disproportionately highimpacts on the poor. With respect to the current projectedhuman population growth, industrial development and the expansion of irrigatedagriculture in the next two decades, water demandis expected to rise to levels that will make the task of providing water forhuman sustenance more difficult.Since its establishment, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) hasworked to promote sustainable water resources management practices through collaborative approaches at the national,regional and global levels. After more than 30 years, water resourcesmanagement continues to be a strong pillar of UNEP's work.

UNEPis actively participating in addressing water issues together with partner UN agencies, other organizations and donors.They facilitate and catalyse water resource assessments in various developingcountries; implement projects that assist countries in developing integratedwater resource management plans; create awareness of innovative alternativetechnologies and assist the development, implementation and enforcement ofwater resource management policies, laws and regulations.

47   Standard English

Atthe beginning of the twenty-first century, the relationship between standardand nonstandard language is, evidently, still an uncertain one. We are at a transitional point between two eras. Weseem to be leaving an era when the rules of Standard English, as elected anddefined by prescriptive grammarians, totally conditioned our sense of acceptable usage, so that all other usagesand varieties were considered to be inferior or corrupt, and excluded fromserious consideration. And we seem to be approaching an era when nonstandardusages and varieties, previously denigrated or ignored, are achieving a newpresence and respectability within society, reminiscent of that found in MiddleEnglish, when dialect variation in literature was widespread and uncontentious.But we are not there yet. The rise of Standard English has resulted in aconfrontation between the standard and nonstandard dimensions of the languagewhich has lasted for over 200 years, and this has had traumatic consequences Which will take some years toeliminate. Once people have been given an inferiority complex about the waythey speak or write, they find it difficult to shake off.

48   MBA Programmes

Decidingto go to business school is perhaps the simplest part of what can be acomplicated process. With nearly 600 accredited MBA programmes on offer around the world, the choice ofwhere to study can be overwhelming. Here we explain how to choose the right school and course for youand unravel the application and funding process. “Probably the majority of people applying to businessschool are at a point in their careers where they know they want to shake things up, but they don’tknow exactly what they want to do with their professional lives,” says StacyBlackman, an MBA admissions consultant based in Los Angeles. “If that’s thecase with you, look at other criteria:culture, teaching method, location, and then pick a place that’s a good fit foryou with a strong general management programme. Super-defined career goalsdon’t have to be a part of this process.”

49   Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin knewintuitively that tropical forests were places of tremendous intricacy and energy. He and his cohort ofscientific naturalists were awed bythe beauty of the Neotropics, where they collected tens of thousands of species new to science. But they couldn'thave guessed at the complete contents of the rain forest, and they had no ideaof its value to humankind.

50   Forest in climate change

Forestplays a crucial role in migration of climate change (4 Blanks) Answers: primarily, promoting, increasing,equivalent

51   Copyright’s roles

The presentation willdiscuss copyright's roles as one the intellectual (5 Blanks) Answers: differ, anoverview, determine, supported, manage

52   Sustainable transportation system

Asustainable transportation system is one in which peoples needs and desires foraccess to jobs, commerce, recreation, culture and home are accommodated using aminimum of resources. Applying principles ofsustainability to transportationwill reduce pollution generated by gasoline-powered engines, noise, trafficcongestion, land devaluation, urban sprawl, economic segregation, and injury todrivers, pedestrians and cyclists. In addition, the costs of commuting,shipping, housing and goods will be reduced.

Ultimatelyin a sustainable San Francisco, almost all trips to and within the City will be on public transit,foot or bicycle-as will a good part of trips to the larger Bay Region. Walking throughstreets designed for pedestrians and bicycles will be more pleasant thanwalking through those designed for the automobile. Street-front retail andcommercial establishments will prosper from the large volume of foot traffic drawn to anenvironment enhanced by trees, appropriately designed “street furniture,”(street lights, bicycle racks, benches, and the like) and other people. Rentsand property costs will be lowered as land for off-street parking is no longer required or needed.

53   Pidgins

Pidginsare languages that are born after contact between at least two languages. As many pidgins developed during the period of empire andinternational trade, one of the language parents was frequently a Europeanlanguage such as French or English, and the other language parent was thelanguage of the people with whom the Europeans were trading or whom they were colonising. Usually one of thelanguages provided the majority of vocabularyitems and the other provided the grammatical structure. When pidginsbecome learned as a mother tongue, they become knownas creoles. I am not going to discuss pidgins and creoles andcontact languages as such in this book in anydepth.

54   Track down research

Havingtracked down research that is relevant toyour area of interest the next task is to actuallymake sense of that research. This section is intended to show you how to becritical of the research you are reviewing andhow to check that the evidence iscredible and represented appropriately. Unfortunately, this means discussingthe ways in which research findings may be misrepresented.

55   Good looks win votes

Itis tempting to try to prove that good looks win votes, and many academics havetried. The difficulty is thatbeauty is in the eye of the beholder, and you cannot behold a politician’s facewithout a veil of extraneous prejudice getting in the way. Does George Bushpossess a disarming grin, or a facetious smirk?It’s hard to find anyone who can look at the president without assessing himpolitically as well as physically.

56   Conservancy

Toqualify as a conservancy, a committee must define the conservancy’s boundaryelect a representative conservancy committee, negotiate a legal constitution,prove the committee’s ability to manage funds, and produce an acceptable planfor equitable distribution ofwildlife-related benefits. Once approved, registered conservancies acquire the rights to a sustainable wildlife quota, set by the ministry.

57   Three degrees

Threedegrees does not sound like much but it representsa rise in temperature compatible with the global heating thatoccurred between the last ice age, some 15,000 years ago, and the warmth of theeighteenth century. When Earth was cold giant glaciers sometimes extended fromthe polar-regions as far south as St Louis in the US and the Alps in Europe.Later this century when it is three degree hotter glaciers everywhere will bemelting in a climate of often unbearable heatand drought punctuated with storms and floods. The consequences for humanity could be truly horrific, if wefail to act swiftly, the full impact of global heating could cull us along withvast populations of the plant and animals with whom we share Earth. In a worstcase scenario, there might- in the 22nd century -be only a remnant of humanityeking out a diminished existencein the polar-regions and the few remaining oases left on a hot and arid Earth.

58   Native species in North America

Ofthe more than 1,000 bat species worldwide, 22 are native to North America. And while there are no pollinatorbats in our area, gardeners should champion thosethat do live here, because they’re insectivorous. These bats consume moths, beetles and mosquitoes, andcan eat up to 500 mosquito-sized insects per hour. They also protect gardensand crops from such pests ascucumber beetles, cutworms and leafhoppers.

59   Atmosphere on the move

Theworld’s atmosphere is forever on the move. Wind is air in motion. Sometimes airmoves slowly, giving a gentle breeze. At other times it moves rapidly, creatinggales and hurricanes. gentle orfierce, wind always starts in the same way. As the sun moves through the sky,it heats up some parts of the sea and land more than others. The air abovethese hot spots is warmed,becomes lighter than the surrounding air, and begins to rise. Elsewhere, coolair sinks, because it is heavier.Winds blow because air squeezed out by sinking, cold air is sucked in underrising, warm air. Winds will blow wherever there is a difference in air temperature andpressure, always flowing from high to low pressure. Some winds blow in oneplace, and have a local name - North America’s chinook and Frances mistral.Others are part of a huge circulation pattern that sends winds over the entire globe.

60   Two sentiments

Overthe last ten thousand years there seem to have been two separate andconflicting building sentiments throughout the history of towns and cities. One is the desire to start again, for avariety of reasons: an earthquake or a tidal wave may have demolished thesettlement, or fire destroyed it, or the new city marks a new political beginning. The other can be likened tothe effect of a magnet: established settlements attract people, who tend to come whether or not there is anyplanning for their arrival. The clash between these two sentiments is evidentin every established city (Unless/whenever/whereas/until)its development has been almost completely accidental or is lost in history.Incidentally, many settlements have been planned from the beginning but, for avariety of reasons, no settlement followed the plan. A good example isCurrowan, on the Clyde River in New South Wales, which was surveyed in the second half of the19th century, in expectation that people would come to establish agricultureand a small port. But no one came. Most country towns in New South Walesstarted with an original survey whose grid lines are still there today in thepattern of the original streets.

61   Paris is very old

Parisis very old—there has been a settlement there for at least 6000 years and itsshape has been determined in part by the River Seine, and in part by the edictsof France’s rulers. But the great boulevards we admire today are relativelynew, and were constructed to prevent any more barricades being created by the rebelliouspopulation; that work was carried out in the middle 19th century. The earlierParis had been in part a maze ofnarrow streets and alleyways. But You can imagine that the work was not onlyhighly expensive, but caused great distress among the half a million or soresidents whose houses were simply razed,and whose neighbourhoods disappeared. What is done cannot usually be undone,especially when buildings are torn down.

62   Significance of instinct in business

Whatis the significance of instinct in business? Does a reliable gut feelingseparate winners from losers? And is it the most valuable emotional tool anyentrepreneur can possess? My observations of successful company owners lead meto believe that a highly analytical attitude can be a drawback. At criticaljunctures in commercial life, risk-taking is more an act of faith than a carefully balanced choice. Frequently,such moments require decisiveness andabsolute conviction above all else. There is simply no time to wait for all thefacts, or room for doubt. A computer program cannot tell you how to invent andlaunch a new product. That journey involves too many unknowns, too much luck - and toomuch sheer intuition, rather than the infallible logic that machines deliver so well. As Chekhov said: “Anartist’s flair is sometimes worth a scientist’s brains” - entrepreneurs needright-brain thinking. When I have been considering whether to buy a company andwhat price to offer, I have been blinded toooften by reams of due diligence from the accountants and lawyers. Usually itpays to stand back from such mountains of grey data and weigh up the reallyimportant issues-and decide how you feel about the opportunity.

63   The Origin of Species

InThe Origin of Species, Darwin provided abundant evidence that life on Earth hasevolved over time, and he proposed natural selection as the primary mechanismfor that change. He observed that individuals differin their inherited traits and that selection acts on suchdifferences, leading to evolutionary change.Although Darwin realised that variation in heritable traits is a prerequisitefor evolution, he did not knowprecisely how organisms pass heritable traits to their offspring. Just a fewyears after Darwin published The Origin of Species, Gregor Mendel wrote aground-breaking paper on inheritance in pea plants in that paper, Mendel proposed a model of inheritance inwhich organisms transmit discrete heritable units (now called genes) to theiroffspring. Although Darwin did not know about genes, Mendel’s paper set thestage for understanding thegenetic differences on which evolution is based.

64   Global Textile Industry

Theenvironmental impact of the global textile industry is hard to overstate.One-third of the water used worldwide is spent fashioning fabrics. For everyton of cloth produced, 200 tonsof water is polluted with chemicals and heavy metals. An estimated 1 trillionkilowatt-hours of electricity powers the factories that card and comb, spin andweave, and cut and stitch materials into everything from T-shirts to towels, leaving behind mountains of solid wasteand a massive carbon footprint.

“Wherethe industry is today is not really sustainable for the long term,” saysShreyaskar Chaudhary, chief executive of Pratibha Syntex, a textilemanufacturer based outside Indore, India.
With something of an “if you build it, they will come” attitude, Mr.Chaudharyhas steered Pratibha toward theleading edge of eco-friendly textile production. Under his direction, Pratibhabegan making clothes with organic cotton in 1999. Initially, the companycouldn't find enough organic farms growing cotton in central India to supply its factories. To meetproduction demands, Chaudhary's team had to convince conventional cottonfarmers to change their growing methods. Pratibha provided seeds, cultivationinstruction, and a guarantee of fair- trade prices for their crops. Today, Pratibha has a networkof 28,000 organic cotton growers across the central states of Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra, and Orissa.

65   Modify cultural ideas

Peoplemodify cultural ideas in their minds, and sometimes they pass on the modifiedversions. Inevitably, there are unintentional modifications as well, partlybecause of straightforward error, and partly because inexplicit ideas are hardto convey accurately: there is noway to download them directly from one brain to another like computer programs.Even native speakers of a language will not give identical definitions of every word. So it can be only rarely, if ever, that two people hold precisely thesame cultural idea in their minds. That is why, when the founder of a politicalor philosophical movement or a religion dies, or even before, schisms typically happen. The movements mostdevoted followers are often shocked to discoverthat they disagree about what its doctrines—really are.

66   Great engineers

Greatengineers have a passion to improve life; a burning conviction that they canmake life better for everyone. Engineers need to have a talent for inventionand innovation, but what drives themis the conviction that they can find a better way to do things; a cheaper andmore efficient solution to the problems of human existence on this planet of limited resources that we call Earth.

Manyof us spend a lot of timecomplaining about the difficulties and problems of life. It is easy to findfault with things that make daily life arduous. For an engineer, thesedifficulties can be opportunities. How can this be made to work better? How canthat process be made more efficient? How can componentsbe made more cheaply, more accurately and more fit-for- purpose?Great engineers are convinced that everything can be improved. Instead of complaining, they think of ways to makethings better.

67   Monkeys and typewriters

Thisillustration often used is the one that themonkey and the typewriters. OK, we have a monkey sitting at a typewriter and the claim here is basicallyif you leave chance in time long enough you will get life. Don’t worry aboutit, yes, it's strange, yes it's wonderful, but leaves enough matter 600 millionyears on earth and you will have life.

So,the monkey sitting at the typewriter, the chances are eventually he producesthe complete works of Shakespeare but he doesn't manage to do it in 600 millionyears. So what I decide to do is to run the numbers. I instead of saying typingthe complete work of Shakespeare.
I just run the numbers for how long would it take a monkey typing one key striker a second. To type “to be or not tobe that is the question”, right? On average how long is it gonna take my monkeyfriend one keystroke a second.

Idon't know how you think it would be. Maybe you could have a guess. Would it beless or more than 600 million years, which is the period life on earth isn'tsupposed to have emerge withinand when I run the numbers “to be or not to be is the question” takes 12.6trillion trillion trillion years to type just that phrase and a DNA string has got as much as information the encyclopedia Brita mica. Are we saying that something ofthat complexity emerges by chance undirected within 600 million years? Again,it’s mathematically possible but it's so incredible unlikely that it would havethat it tilts me in favor of the Christian story inwhich God creating life, simply a question of saying let that be and there was.

68   Stress

Stress— that tense feeling often connected to having too much todo, too many bills to pay and not enough time or money — is a commonemotion that knows few borders.
About three-fourths of people in the United States, Australia, Canada, France,Germany, Italy, South Korea and Britain reported experiencingstress on a daily basis, according to AP-Ipsos polling.Anxious feelings were more intense duringthe holidays.

Germansfeel stress more intensely thanthose in other countries polled. People in the United States cited financialpressures as the top worry. About half the people polled in Britain said theyfrequently or sometimes felt thatlife was beyond their control, the highest level in the 10 countries surveyed.

69   Buying a house

Buyinga house can be a dauntingprocess... First you need to work out how much... budget planner if you don’talready have one... rate increases and for other unforeseen events.... different ownership ratio to thenormal 50/50. ...the ordinary course ofevents, settlement takes.....group certificates for the PAST twoyears.

70   Wagonways in Germany

Roadsof rails called Wagonways were being used in Germany as early as 1550. These primitive railed roads consisted of woodenrails over which horse-drawn wagons or carts moved with greater ease than overdirt roads. Wagonways were the beginnings of modern railroads.

by 1776, iron had replaced the wood in therails and wheels on the carts. Wagonways evolved into Tramways and spreadthroughout Europe. Horses still provided all the pulling power. In 1789,Englishman, William Jessup designed the first wagons with flanged wheels. The flange was a groove that allowed thewheels to better grip the rail, this was an important design that carried overto later locomotives.

71   Walt Disney World

WaltDisney World has become a pilgrimage site partly because of the luminosity ofits cross- cultural and marketing and partly because its utopian aspects appeal powerfully to realneeds in the capitalist society.Disney’s marketing is unique because it captured the symbolic essence of childhood but the company has gained accessto all public shows, comic books, dolls, apparels, and educational film strips all point to theparks and each other.

72   Imperial Control

Inthe southern cone especially, from Venezuela to Argentina, the region is risingto overthrow the legacy of external domination of thepast centuries and the cruel and destructive social forms that they have helpedto establish.
The mechanisms of imperialcontrol - violence and economic warfare, hardly a distant memory in LatinAmerica-are losing their effectiveness, a sign of the shift towardindependence. Washington is now compelled to tolerate governments that in thepast would have drawn intervention or reprisal.

Throughoutthe region a vibrant array ofpopular movements provide the basis for a meaningful democracy. The indigenouspopulations, as if in a rediscovery of their pre-Columbian legacy, are muchmore active and influential, particularly in Bolivia and Ecuador.
These developments are in part the result of a phenomenon that has beenobserved for some years in Latin America: As the elected governments becomemore formally democratic, citizens expressedan increasing disillusionment with democratic institutions. Theyhave sought to construct democratic systems based on popular participationrather than elite and foreign domination.

73   DNA sequence

Therecipe for making any creature is written in its DNA. So last November whengeneticists published the near-complete DNA sequence of the long-extinct woollymammoth, there was much speculation about whether we could bring this behemothback to life. Creating a living, breathing creature from a genome sequence thatexists only in a computer's memory is not possible right now. But someonesomeday is sure to try it, predicts StephanSchuster a molecular biologist atPennsylvania State University, University Park, and a driving force behind the mammoth genomeproject.

74   Joseph Engelberger

JosephEngelberger, a pioneer in industrial robotics, once remarked “I can't define a robot, but I know one when I seeone” If you consider all the different machinespeople call robots, you can see that it's nearly impossible to comeup with a comprehensive definition.Everybody has a different idea of whatconstitutes a robot.

75   Two siblings

No two siblings are the same,not even identical twins. Parentsoften puzzle about why theirchildren are so different from one another. They’ll say, I broughtthem I up all the same. They forget that what determinesour behaviour isn't what happens to us but how we interpret what happens to us, and no two people ever seeanything in exactly the same way.

76   Promoting good customer service

Promotinggood customer service must start at the top. If management doesn’t realise howimportant this aspect of theirbusiness is, they will be at an instant disadvantagein their industry Good customer response equates to loyal customers, which are the cornerstone of anysuccessful business. No matter how money you invest in your marketing, if you don't much have thefundamental elements of your business right, it's wasted money.

77   Music in ancient Egypt

Musicwas as important to the ancient Egyptians as it is in our modern societyAlthough it is thought that music played a rolethroughout the history of Egypt, those that study the Egyptian writings havediscovered that music seemed to become moreimportant in what is called the ‘pharaonic’ periodof their history. This was the time when theEgyptian dynasties of the pharaohs were established (around3100 BCE) and music was found in manyparts of every day Egyptian life.

78   Women’s participation in labour force

Withthe increase in women 's participation inthe labour force, many mothers have less time availableto undertake domestic activities. At the same time, there has been increasing recognition that the father 's role and relationship with a child is important. Afather can have many roles in thefamily, ranging from income provider to teacher, carer, playmate and rolemodel. Therefore, balancing paid work and family responsibilities can be animportant issue for both fathers and mothers in families.

79   UWS

Most important of all is the fact that for each new ballet-pantomimecreated at the Paris Opera during the July Monarchy, a new score was produced.The reason for this is simple: these ballet- pantomimes told stories -elaborate ones - and music was considered an indispensable tool in getting themacross to the audience. Therefore, music hadto be newly created to fit each story. Music tailor-made for each newballet-pantomime, however, was only one weapon in the Opera's explanatoryarsenal. Another was the ballet-pantomime libretto, aprinted booklet of fifteen to forty pages in length, which was sold in theOperas lobby (like the opera libretto), and which laid out the plot inpainstaking detail, scene by scene. Critics also took it upon themselves torecount the plots (of both ballet-pantomimes and operas)in their reviewsof premieres. So did the publishers ofsouvenir albums, which also featured pictures of famous performersand of scenes from favorite ballet-pantomimesand operas.

UWSgraduates Racha Abboud and Anna Ford, whose story first appeared in GradLife inDecember 2009, have successfully risenthrough the ranks to be appointed Associatesat leading western Sydney law firm, Coleman Greig Lawyers. The promotion marksthe culmination of many years ofhard work for these legal eagles whoare the first to rise to this level fromthe firm's Cadet Lawyer program with UWS.

80   Dictatorship

Dictatorshipis not a modern concept. Two thousand years ago, during the period of the RomanRepublic, exceptional powers were sometimes given by the Senate to individual dictators such as Sulla andJulius Caesar. The intention wasthat the dictatorship would be temporary and that it would make it POSSIBLE totake swift and effective action to deal with an emergency There is some disagreement as to how the term should beapplied today. Should it be used in its original form to describe the temporaryexercise of emergency powers? Or can it now be appliedin a much broader sense-as common usage suggests?

81   Bees food

Beesneed two different kinds of food. One is honey made from nectar, which actuallyis a fluid that is collected in the heart of the flowers to encourage pollination by insects and otheranimals. Secondly, come from pollen, it is fine powdery substance in yellow,consisting of microscopic grains stored fromthe male part of a flower or from a male cone. It contains a male gamete thatcan fertilize the female ovule, which is transferredby wind, insects or other animals.

Letus go with the honeybee from her flower to the hive and see what happens. Mostbees gather only pollen or nectar. As she sucks nectar from the flower, it is stored in her special honey stomach readyto be transferred to the honey-making bees in the live.

82   Wind moving

Windis air moving around. Some winds can move as fast as a racing car, over 100 miles an hour. Winds can travel around the world.Wind can make you feel coldbecause you lose heat from your body faster whenit is windy Weather forecasters need to knowthe speed and direction of the wind. the strength of wind ismeasured using the Beaufort scale from wind force when there is no wind, towind force 12 which can damage houses and buildings and is called hurricaneforce.

83   How to make cloth

About 10,000 years ago, peoplelearned how to make cloth. Wool, cotton, flax, or hemp was first spun into athin thread, using a spindle. The thread was then woven into a fabric. Theearliest weaving machines probably consistedof little more than a pair of sticks that held a set of parallel threads,called the wrap, while the cross-thread, called the weft was inserted Latermachines called looms had roads that separated the threads to allow the weft tobe inserted more easily. a pieceof wood, called the shuttle, holding a spool of thread, was passed between theseparated threads. The basic principles ofspinning and weaving have stayed the same until the present day though duringthe industrial revolution of the 18th century many ways were found of automating the processes. With newmachines such as the spinning mule, many threads could be spun at the sametime, and, with the help of devices like the flying shuttle, broad pieces ofcloth could be woven at great speed.

84   Two types of genes

Recently,research into embryonic development has given us an even better insight intohow major structural changes might occur in a given population of organisms. Wenow understand that there are two major types of genes: developmental and“housekeeping” genes. Developmental genes are those that are expressed duringembryonic development, and their proteins controlthe symmetry, skeletal development, organ placement, and overallform of the developing animal. in contrast,“housekeeping”genesare expressed during the animal's daily life to generate proteins which keepthe cells, tissues, and organs in the body functioning properly. as you might suspect, mutations indevelopmental genes can have radical consequences for body form and function,whereas mutations in “housekeeping” genes tend to affect the health and reproductive success of thepost-embryonic animal.

85   Seminars

Seminarsare not designed to be mini-lectures. Their educational role is to provide an opportunity for youto discuss interesting and/or difficult aspects of the course. This is foundedon the assumption that it is onlyby actively trying to use the knowledge that you have acquired from lecturesand texts that you can achieve an adequate understanding of the subject. If youdo not understand a point it is highly unlikelythat you will be the only person in the group in that position; youwill invariably be undertaking a service forthe entire group if you come to the seminar equipped with questions on matterswhich you feel you did not fully understand.

86   Hard work

Itis important to emphasize theneed for hard work as an essential part of studying law, because far too manystudents are tempted to think that they can succeed by relying on what theyimagine to be their natural ability, without bothering to add the expenditureof effort. To take an analogy some people prefer the more or less instant gratification which comes from watchingtelevision adaptation of a classic novel to the rather more laborious process of reading the novelitself. Those who prefer watchingtelevision to reading the book are less likely to study law successfully,unless they rapidly acquire a taste fortext-based materials.

87   Leadership

Leadershipis all about being granted permission by others to lead their thinking. It is abestowed moral authority that gives the right to organise and direct theefforts of others. But moral authority does not come from simply managingpeople effectively or communicating better or being able to motivate. It comesfrom many sources, includingbeing authentic and genuine, having integrity, and showing a real and deepunderstanding of the business in question. All these factors build confidence.

Leaderslose moral authority for three reasons: they behave unethically; they become plagued by self-doubt and losetheir conviction; or they are blinded by power lose self-awareness and thuslose connection with those theylead as the context around them changes. Having said all this, it has to beassumed that if someone becomes a leader, at some point they understood thedifference between right and wrong it is up to them to abide by a moral code and up to us toensure that the moment we suspect they do not, we fire them or vote them out.

88   Dark matters

The rest of the universe appears to be made ofa mysterious, invisible substance calleddark matter (25 percent) and a force that repels gravity known as dark energy(70 percent). Scientists have not yet observeddark matter directly. It doesn't interact with baryonic matter andit's completely invisible to light and other forms of electromagneticradiation, making dark matter impossible to detect with current instruments.But scientists are confident it exists because of the gravitational effects itappears to have on galaxies and galaxy clusters. The visible universe—includingEarth, the sun, other stars, and galaxies—is made of protons, neutrons, andelectrons bundled together into atoms. Perhaps one of the most surprising discoveriesof the 20th century was that this ordinary,or baryonic, matter makes up less than 5 percent of the mass of the universe.

89   First-year students

For many first-year students,the University may be their first experience livingaway from home for an extended periodof time. It is a definite breakfrom home. In my point of view this is the best thing that you can do. I knowyou have to fend for yourself, cook and clean after yourself, basically lookafter yourself without your parents but the truth is-some time in your life youare going to have to part with lovely Mummy andDaddy. But they are only just a phone call away and it is really good to havesome quality time without them.The first few weeks can be a lonely period. There may be concerns about formingfriendship. When new students look around, it may seem that everyone else isself-confident and socially successful!The reality is that everyone is having the same concerns.

Increased personal freedom canfeel both wonderful and frightening. Studentscan come and go as they choose with no one to “hassle” them. The strangeenvironment with new kinds of procedures and new people can create the sense ofbeing on an emotional roller coaster. This is normal and to be expected Youmeet so many more people in the halls than if you stayed at home. The mainpoints about living away from home are:

NO PARENTS! You don' t have totell them where you’re going, who you’re going with, what time you'll becoming, why you're going etc.

….. sourcesof the things you rely on, … facilitatesadjustments to new environments.

You learnvarious social skills you have to get along with your roommates living withthem can present special, sometimes intense, problems. Negotiating respect ofpersonal property, personal space, sleep, and relaxation needs, can be acomplex task. The complexity increases when roommates are of different backgroundswith very different values. It is unrealisticto expect that roommates will be best friends. Meaningful, new relationshipsshould not be expected to develop overnight. It took a great deal of time todevelop intimacy in high school friendships the same will be true of intimacyin university friendships.

You have aphone! So if you ever get homesick or miss you, Mummy, then shes always at theend of a phone-line for you and so are your friends.

90   The growth of the internet

Theexponential growth of the internet was heralded,in the 1990s, as revolutionizing the production and dissemination of information. Some people saw the internetas a means of democratizng accessto knowledge. For people concerned withAfrican development, it seemed to offer the possibility of leapfrogging over the technology gap thatseparates Africa from advanced industrialized countries.

91   When to revise?

Timingis important for revision. Have you noticed that during the school day you gettimes when you just don' t care any longer? I don't mean the lessons you don tlike, but the ones you find usually find OK, but on some occasions, you justcan't be bothered with it. You may have other things on your mind, be tired, restless orlooking forward to what comes next. whatever the reason, that particular lessondoesn't get 100 percent effort fromyou.

Thesame is true of revision. Your mental and physical attitudeare important. If you try torevise when you are tired or totally occupied with something else, yourrevision will be inefficient and just about worthless. If you approach itfeeling fresh, alert and happy, it will be so much easier, and you will learnmore, faster.

However,if you make no plans and just slip in a little bit of revision when you feellike it, you probably won’t do much revision!
You need a revision timetable, so you don't keep putting it off.