【易学PTE】真题鸡精 - 阅读FIB 2.0(更新日期2018-10-16)

真题机经-阅读Fill in the Blanks 2.0 (新)






1. SISU/上海外国语大学

Upholdingthe motto of "Integrity, Vision and Academic Excellence" ShanghaiInternational Studies University (SISU) is an internationally recognized, prestigiousacademic institution distinctive for its multidisciplinary and multicultural nature,committed to preparing innovative professionals and future global leaders for awide range of international expertise to address theoritical challenges of ourtimes.

Drawingon our strengths in multi-language programs and multi-disciplinary resources,while responding to national and regional strategies, we operate more than 70research institutes and centers serving as academic think tanks to provideadvisory services on language policies, diplomatic strategies and global publicopinionof China. These

academicentities have contributed landmark research and are also dedicated to promotingthe development of social sciences in China.

Wehave now establishedpartnerships with more than 330 universities and institutionsfrom 56 countries and regions, and have maintained close connection withinternational organizations, including the United Nations and the EuropeanUnion.

2. Crime prevention/预防犯罪

Crime prevention has a long history inAustralia, and in other parts of the world. In all societies, people have triedto protectthemselves and those close to them from assaults and other abuses. Every timesomeone locks the door to their house or their car, they practise a form ofprevention. Most parents want their children to learn to be law abiding and notSpend extended periods of their lives in prison. In this country, at east, mostsucceed. Only a small minority of young people become recidivist offenders. Ina functioning society, crime prevention is part of everyday life. While preventioncan be all-pervasive at the grassroots, it is oddly neglected in mass media andpolitical discourses. When politicians, talkback radio hosts and newspapereditorialists pontificate about crime and possible remedies, it is comparatively rare forthem to mention prevention. Overwhelmingly, emphasis is on policing, sentencingand other 4

law and order Responses.

3. Learning process/学习过程

Learning is a process by which behavior orknowledge changes as a result of experience. Learning from experience plays amajor role IN enabling us to do many things that we clearly were not born to do,from the simplest tasks, such as flipping a light switch, to the more complex,such as playing a musical instrument. To many people, the term “learning”signifies the activitiesthat students do reading, listening, and taking tests in order to acquire new information.This process, which is known as cognitive learning, is just one type of learning,however. Another way that we learn is by associative learning, which is thefocus of this module. You probably associate certain holidays with specific sights, sounds, andsmells, or foods with specific flavors and textures. We are not the only species with this skilleven the simplest animals such as the earthworm can learn by association.

4. Writing style/写作风格

Learning to write well in college meanslearning (or re-learning) how to write clearly and plainly. Now that doesn’t meanthat plainness is the only good style, or that you should become a slave to spare, unadornedwriting. Formality and ornateness have their place, and in competent hands complexitycan take us on a dizzying, breathtaking journey. But most students, most of thetime should striveto be sensibly simple to develop a baseline style of short words, active verbsand relatively simple sentence conveying clear actions or identities. It's faster, it makesarguments easier to follow, it increases the chances a busy reader will botherto pay attention, and it lets you pay more attention on your moments of rhetorical flourish whichI do not advise abandoningaltogether.

5. Sharks/鲨鱼

Sharks killed four people and bit 58others around the world in 2006, a comparatively dull year for dangerous encountersbetween the two species, scientists said in their annual shark attack census onTuesday. Sharkbite numbers grewsteadily over the last century as humans reproduced exponentially and spentmore time at the seashore But the numbers have been flat over the past five years asoverfishing thinnedthe shark population near shore and swimmers got smarter about the risks ofwading into certain areas, Burgess said.

Plants and animals/动植物

From the earliest civilizations, plantsand animals have been portrayed as a means of understanding and recording thepotential uses, such as their economic and healing properties. From the first illustratedcatalog ofmedicinal plants, De Materia Medica by Dioscorides, in the first centurythrough to the late fourteenth century, the illustration of

plants and animals changed very little.

Woodcuts in instructional manuals and herbalswere often repeatedly copied over the centuries, resulting in a loss of definitionand accuracy so that they became little more than stylized decoration. With thegrowing popularityof copperplate engravings, the traditional use of woodcuts declined and therepresentation of plants and animals became more accurate. Then, with the emergence of artists suchas Albrecht Durer and Leonardo Da Vinci, naturalists such as Otto Brunfels,Leonhard Fuchs in botany and Conrad Gesner and Ulisse Aldrovandi in zoology,nature began to be depictedin a more realistic style. Individual living plants or animals were observeddirectly and their likeness renderedonto paper or vellum.

6. Material culture studies/物质文化研究

The study of objects constitutes arelatively new field of academic inquiry, commonly referred to as materialculture studies. Students of material culture seek to understand societies,both past and present, through careful study and observation of the physical or material objectsgenerated by those societies. The source material for study is exceptionally wide,including not just human-made artifacts but also natural objects and evenpreserved body parts (as you saw in the film ’Encountering a body’).

Some specialists in the field of materialculture have made bold claims for its pre-eminence In certain disciplines, it reigns supreme. It playsa critical role in archaeology, for example, especially in circumstances where written evidenceis either patchy or non-existent. In such cases, objects are all scholars have to rely onin forming an understanding of ancient peoples. Even where written documentssurvive the physical remains of literate cultures often help to provide new andinteresting insights into how people once lived and thought, as in the case ofmedieval and post-medieval archaeology. In analyzing the physical remains ofsocieties, both past and present, historians, archaeologists, anthropologistsand others have been careful to remind us that objects mean different things todifferent people.

7. International students/国际学生

Work-ready international students areproviding greater options for local employers who are having difficulties finding local staff dueto high employmentrates and ongoing labor shortages.

International students in accounting andinformation technology take part in a year-long program consisting of classroom work and practicalexperience, which provides them with valuable skills, industry contacts and a working knowledge of Australian.

8. Sociology/社会学

Sociology is, in very basic terms, thestudy of human societies. In this respect, It is usually classed as one of thesocial sciences(along with subjectslike psychology) and was establishedas a subject in the late 18th century( through the work of people like theFrench writer Auguste Comte). However, the subject has only really gained acceptance as an academicsubject in the 20th century through the work of writers such as Emile Durkheim,Max Weber and Talcott Parsons(names that will be visited throughout thiscourse). One name that you may have heard of-Karl Marx (the founder of modemCommunism)-has probably done more to stimulate peoples interest in the subjectthan anyone else, even though he lived and wrote(1818-1884)in a period beforesociology became fully established as an academic discipline. Sociology,therefore, has a reasonably long history of development,(150-200 years)although in Britain ithas only been in the last 30-40 years that sociology as an examined subject inthe education system has achieved a level of importance equivalent to, orabove, most of the other subjects it is possible to study.

9. The fall of smallpox/天花来袭

The fall of smallpox began with therealization that survivorsof the disease were immune for the rest of their lives. This led to thepractice of variolation - a process of exposing a healthy person to infected materialfrom a person with smallpox in the hopes of producing a mild disease that provided immunity fromfurther infection the first written account of variolation describes a Buddhistnun practicing around 1022 to 1063 AD. By the 1700s, this method of variolationwas common practicein China, India, and Turkey. In the late 1700s European physicians used thisand other methods of variolation, but reported“devastating” results in somecases. Overall, 2% to 3% of people who were variolated died of smallpox, butthis practice decreased the total number of smallpox fatalities by 10-fold.

10. The gray wolf/灰狼

After an absence of more than 50 years,the gray wolf (Canis lupus) once again runs beneath the night skies ofYellowstone National Park. At 3:45 pm on March 21st 1995, the first of threegroups of gray wolves (also known as the timber wolf) were released from fenced acclimation pensat Crystal Creek within Yellowstone National Park The wolf release plan, involved in anenvironmental impact statement(EIS)in 1992-1994, is to restore wolves toYellowstone and central Idaho by establishing experimental populations of graywolves in both areas. The goal for Yellowstone is to establish 10 packs wolvesreproducing in the area for three consecutive years by the year 2002. Restoring wolves toYellowstone is in keeping with national park goals to perpetuate all nativespecies and their natural interactions with their environment. As with otherpark wildlife programs, management emphasizes minimizing human impact on natural animalpopulation dynamics. Yellowstone National Park is a wilderness and wild liferefuge in the United States.

11. Europa/欧罗巴

Scientists preparing for NASA's proposedJupiter Icy Moons Orbiter believe that Jupiter's moons Europa may be acorrosive mixture of acid and peroxide. Thus, it may not be the ideal place for life toexist as was thought possibly to be the case. Virtually, all the information wehave about Europa comes from the spacecraft Galileo, which completed itsmission to study Jupiter and its moons close up before NASA dramaticallycrashed it into Jupiter in 2003. Although the general perception of Europa isof a frozen crust of water ice harboring a salty subterranean ocean kilometersbelow, researchers studying the most recent measurements say light reflected from the moons icysurface bears the spectral fingerprints of hydrogen peroxide and strong acids, however, they accept thatit could just be a thin surface dusting and might not come from the oceanbelow.

12. Electorate/选民

It would be reassuring to think that theelectorate choose who to vote for based on the candidates' track records andfuture policy promises. In truth, many of us are swayed simply by the way thatpoliticians look. Consider a 2009 study that asked Swiss students to look atmultiple pairs of unfamiliar French political candidates and in each case toselect the one who looked most competent. Most of the time, the candidateselected by students as looking the most competent was also the one who'd hadreal life electoral success, the implication being that voters too had beenswayed by the candidates' appearance (there's little evidence that appearanceand competence actually correlate).Unsurprisingly, being attractive also helps win votes, especially in wartime(in peace time, looking trustworthy is more of an advantage). Otherresearch has shown that we're more likely to vote for male and femalecandidates with deeper voices.

13. Anthropologists/人类学家

It is commonly said by anthropologiststhat the primitive man is lessindividual than civilized man This is an element of truth. Simpler societies call for, andprovide opportunities for, a far smaller diversity of individual skills and occupations than themore complex and advancedsocieties, and as a result those who live in those societies are lessindividual. In this sense, individualism is a necessary product of modern advancedsociety and suns through all its activities.

14. Tokyo's Skytree/东京晴空塔

TeamLabsdigital mural at the entrance to Tokyos Skytree, one of the worlds monster skyscrapers, is 40meters long and immensely detailed But however massive this form of digital art becomes-and it's a form subject to rampant inflation-Inoko's theories about seeing arebased on more modest and often pre-digital sources. An early devotee of comicbooks and cartoons (no surprises there), then computer games, he recognizedwhen he started to look at traditional Japanese art that all those forms hadsomething in common: something about the way they captured space. In hisdiscipline of physics, Inoko had been taught that photographic lenses, alongwith the conventions of western art were the logical way of transforming threedimensions into two, conveying the real world on to a flat surface, butJapanese traditions employed "a different spatial logic", as he saidin an interview last year with jcollabo.orgthat is "uniquelyJapanese".

15. Gun violence/枪支暴力

Exposure to gun violence makes adolescentstwice as likely to perpetrate serious violence in the next two years, accordingto a University of Michigan study.Researchers found there is a substantial cause and effect relationship between exposure andperpetration of violence. Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, a doctoral student in healthbehavior and health education, analyzed five years of data from adolescentsliving in 78 neighborhoods in Chicago. Bingenheimer is lead author on a paperin this week's journal Science.

16. Scientific method/科学方法

The logic of the scientific method was setout by John Stuart Mill in 1843 and was named the method of difference. Asimple example of what he meant by this is to take two glasses of water whichare identical inevery respect. Introduce a few drops of ink into one of these glasses. Thewater changes color! According to Mills method of difference it is safe toassume that the change in the color of the water is due to the introduction of a newfactor - the independent variable - in this case, the ink.

17. Resultant force/合力

The overall result of two or more forces acting on anobject is called the resultant force the resultant of two forces is a singleforce, which has the same effect as the two forces combined, if two forces pullan object in oppositedirections, the size of the resultant can be found by subtracting one forceform the other. If the forces are equal, they balance each other.

18. Neuroscientists /神经系统学家

We now know through the work ofneuroscientists that the human brain is wired to mimic other people, and thismimicry involves actual involuntary physiological experience in the observer Human beings tend toimitate actions that they see. Physiologically, our brains include mirrorneurons, which reactto actions that are seen as if we are doing the action ourselves. It is largelyan unconscious and automatic experience. When we hear people speak, observetheir vocal nuances,watch their posture, gestures, and facial expressions, etc, neural networks inour brains are stimulated by the "shared representations" generatingfeelings within us that reflectthe experience of those we are observing.

19. Psychology/心理学

Psychology as a subject of study haslargely developed in the West since the late nineteenth century. During thisperiod there has been an emphasis on scientific thinking. Because of thisemphasis, there have been many scientific studies in psychology which explore different aspectsof human nature. These include studies into how biology (physical factors)influencehuman experience, how people use their senses (touch, taste, smell, sight and hearing) toget to know the world, how people develop, why people behave in certain ways,how memory works, how people develop language, how people understand and thinkabout the world, what motivates people, why people have emotions and howpersonality develops. These scientific investigations all contribute to an understandingof human nature.

20. Criminal acts/罪行

The narrative of law and order is locatedfundamentally at the levelof individual guilt and responsibility. Criminal acts are seen as individualissues of personal responsibility and culpability, to which the state responds by way ofpolicing, prosecution,adjudication and punishment.

This is but one level at which crime andcriminal justice can be analyzed. The problem is that so often analysis endsthere, at the level of individual action, characterized in terms of responsibility, guilt,evil.

21. Interior design/室内设计

Interior design is a professionallyconducted, practice-based process of planning and realization of interiorspaces and the elements within. Interior design is concerned with the function and operationof the aesthetics and its sustainability. The work of an interior designerdraws upon many other disciplines,such as environmental psychology, architecture, product design and, aesthetics,in relation to a wide range of building spaces including hotels corporate andpublic spaces, schools, hospitals, private residences, shopping malls,restaurants, theaters and airport terminals.

22. The Petrified Forest/化石森林

The Petrified Forest is home to some ofthe most impressive fossils ever found and more are being discovered each yearas continuing erosion is exposingnew evidence. Fossils found here show the Forest was once a tropical region, filled with toweringtrees and extraordinary creatures. More than 150 different species offossilized plants have been discovered by paleontologists and evidence indicating ancient nativepeople who inhabited this region about 10,000 years ago have been confirmed byarcheologists.

23. Computational thinking/计算思维

Developing computational thinking helpsstudents to better understand the world around them, many of us happily drive acar without understandingwhat goes on under the bonnet. So is it necessary for children to learn how to programcomputers? After all, some experts say coding is one of the human skills thatwill become obsolete as artificial intelligence grows. Nevertheless,governments believe coding is an essential skill. Since 2014, the principles ofcomputer programming have featured on England's curriculum for children fromthe age of five or six, when they start primary school.

While not all children will becomeprogrammers, Mark Martin, a computing teacher at Sydenham High School, London,argues that they should learn to understand what makes computers work and try to solve problems asa computer might.

24. Distance learning/远程学习

Distancelearning can be highly beneficial to a large variety of people from youngstudents wanting to expand their horizons to adults looking for more jobsecurity, with programs that allow learners of all ages to take courses forfun, personal advancement and degrees, distance learning can meet the needs of a diverse population.

Perhapsone of the most notable and often talked about advantages of distance learning is the flexibilitythe majority of programs allow students to learn when and where it's convenientfor them. For thosewho are struggling to balance their distance learning goals with working afulltime job and taking care of a family this kind of flexibility can allowmany people to pursue education who would not otherwise be able to do so. since there are noon-campus courses to attend, students can learn from their own homes, at workon their lunch breaks and from virtually anywhere with internet access. Forsome it can even be a big source of savings on the fuel costs and time requiredto commute to classes.

25. Seminars/研讨会

Seminars are not designed to be mini-lectures.Their educational roleis to provide an opportunity for you to discuss interesting and difficultaspects of the course. This is founded on the assumption that it is only by actively trying touse the knowledge that you have acquired from lectures and texts that you canachieve an adequate understanding of the subject. If you do not understand apoint it is highly unlikelythat you will be the only person in the group in that position, you willinvariably be undertaking a servicefor the entire group if you come to the seminar equipped with questions onmatters which you feel you did not fully understand.

Housekeeping genes/持家基因

Recently, research into embryonicdevelopment has given us an even better insight into how major structuralchanges might occur in a given population of organisms. We now understand thatthere are two major types of genes: developmental and “housekeeping” genes.Developmental genes are those that are expressed during embryonic development,and their proteins controlthe symmetry, skeletal development, organ placement, and overall form of thedeveloping animal, in contrast. "housekeeping" genes are expressedduring the animal's daily life to generate proteins which keep the cells,tissues, and organs in the body functioning properly, as you might suspect,mutations in developmental genes can have radical consequences for body formand function, whereas mutations in "housekeeping" genes tend to affect the health andreproductive success of the post-embryonic animal.

26. How to make cloth/如何织布

About10,000 years ago, people learned how to make cloth. Wool, cotton, flax, or hempwas first spun into a thin thread, using a spindle. The thread was then woveninto a fabric. The earliest weaving machines probably consisted of little more than a pair ofsticks that held a set of parallel threads, called the wrap, while thecross-thread, called the weft was inserted Later machines called looms hadroads that separated the threads to allow the weft to be inserted more easily, a piece of wood,called the shuttle, holding a spool of thread, was passed between the separatedthreads. The basic principlesof spinning and weaving have stayed the same until the present day thoughduring the industrial revolution of the 18th century many ways were found of automating the processes.With new machines such as the spinning mule, many threads could be spun at thesame time, and, with the help of devices like the flying shuttle, broad piecesof cloth could be woven at great speed.

27. Dictatorship/独裁

Dictatorship is not a modem concept. Twothousand years ago, during the period of the Roman Republic, exceptional powerswere sometimes given by the Senate to individual dictators such as Sulla and JuliusCaesar. The intentionwas that the dictatorship would be temporary and that it would make it possibleto take swift and effective action to deal with an emergency There is some disagreement as to howthe term should be applied today. Should it be used in its original form todescribe the temporary exercise of emergency powers? Or can it now be applied in a much broadersense-as common usage suggests?

28. Ballet-pantomime/默剧芭蕾

Most important of all is the fact that foreach new ballet-pantomime created at the Paris Opera during the July Monarchy,a new score was produced. The reason for this is simple: theseballet-pantomimes told stories - elaborate ones - and music was considered anindispensable tool in getting them across to the audience. Therefore, music hadto be newly created to fit each story.

Music tailor-made for each newballet-pantomime, however, was only one weapon in the Opera's explanatoryarsenal. Another was the ballet-pantomime libretto, a printed booklet offifteen to forty pages in length, which was sold in the Operas lobby (like theopera libretto), and which laid out the plot in painstaking detail, scene byscene. Critics also took it upon themselves to recount the plots (of bothballet-pantomimes and operas)in their reviews of premieres. So did the publishers ofsouvenir albums, which also featured pictures of famous performers and of scenes from favoriteballet-pantomimes and operas. Law firm/法律事务所

UWS graduates Racha Abboud and Anna Ford,whose story first appeared in GradLife in December 2009, have successfully risenthrough the ranks to be appointedAssociates at leading western Sydney law firm, Coleman Greig Lawyers. Thepromotion marks the culminationof many years of hard work for these legal eagles who are the first to rise to this level from the firm's CadetLawyer program with UWS.

29. DNA sequence/遗传物质序列

The recipe for making any creature iswritten in its DNA. So last November when geneticists published thenearcomplete DNA sequence of the long-extinct woolly mammoth, there was muchspeculation about whether we could bring this behemoth back to life. Creating aliving, breathing creature from a genome sequence that exists only in acomputer's memory is not possible right now. But someone someday is sure to tryit, predictsStephan Schuster a molecularbiologist at Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and a driving force behind themammoth geome project.

30. Great engineers/伟大的工程师

Great engineers have a passion to improvelife; a burning conviction that they can make life better for everyone.Engineers need to have a talent for invention and innovation, but what drives them is theconviction that they can find a better way to do things; a cheaper and moreefficient solution to the problems of human existence on this planet of limited resources that wecall Earth.

Many of us spend a lot of time complaining about thedifficulties and problems of life. It is easy to find fault with things thatmake daily life arduous. For an engineer, these difficulties can beopportunities. How can this be made to work better? How can that process bemade more efficient? How can componentsbe made more cheaply, more accurately and more fit-for-purpose? Great engineersare convinced that everything can be improved. Instead of complaining, they think of ways to makethings better.

31. Global textile industry/全球纺织业

The environmental impact of the globaltextile industry is hard to overstate. One-third of the water used worldwide isspent fashioning fabrics. For every ton of cloth produced, 200 tons of water is polluted withchemicals and heavy metals. An estimated 1 trillion kilowatt-hours ofelectricity powers the factories that card and comb, spin and weave, and cutand stitch materials into everything from T-shirts to towels, leaving behind mountainsof solid waste and a massive carbon footprint.

"Where the industry is today is notreally sustainable for the long term," says Shreyaskar Chaudhary, chiefexecutive of Pratibha Syntex, a textile manufacturer based outside Indore,India.

With something of an "if you buildit, they will come" attitude, Mr.Chaudhary has steered Pratibha toward the leading edgeof eco-friendly textile production. Under his direction, Pratibha began makingclothes with organic cotton in 1999. Initially, the company couldn’t findenough organic farms growing cotton in central India to supply its factories.To meet production demands, Chaudhary's team had to convince conventionalcotton farmers to change theirgrowing methods. Pratibha provided seeds, cultivation instruction, and aguarantee of fairtrade prices for their crops. Today, Pratibha has a network of28,000 organic cotton growers across the central states of Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra, and Orissa.

32. Evolution/进化

In The Origin of Species, Darwin providedabundant evidence that life on Earth has evolved over time, and he proposednatural selection as the primary mechanism for that change. He observed thatindividuals differin their inherited traits and that selection acts on such differences, leadingto evolutionarychange. Although Darwin realised that variation in heritable traits is aprerequisite for evolution, he did not know precisely how organisms passheritable traits to their offspring. Just a few years after Darwin publishedThe Origin of Species, Gregor Mendel wrote a groundbreaking paper oninheritance in pea plants in that paper, Mendel proposed a model of inheritancein which organisms transmit discrete heritable units (now called genes) totheir offspring. Although Darwin did not know about genes, MendeFs paper setthe stage for understanding the genetic differences on which evolution isbased.

33. Instinct in business/商业嗅觉

What is the significance of instinct inbusiness? Does a reliable gut feeling separate winners from losers? And is itthe most valuable emotional tool any entrepreneur can possess? My observationsof successful company owners lead me to believe that a highly analyticalattitude can be a drawback. At critical junctures in commercial life,risk-taking is more an actof faith than a carefully balanced choice. Frequently, such moments require decisiveness and absoluteconviction above all else. There is simply no time to wait for all the facts,or room for doubt. A computer program cannot tell you how to invent and launcha new product. Thatjourney involvestoo many unknowns, too much luck and too much sheer intuition, rather than theinfallible logicthat machines deliver so well. As Chekhov said: “An artist’s flair is sometimesworth a scientist’s brains” - entrepreneurs need right-brain thinking. When Ihave been considering whether to buy a company and what price to offer, I havebeen blinded toooften by reams of due diligence from the accountants and lawyers. Usually, itpays to stand back from such mountains of grey data and weigh up the reallyimportant issues-and decide how you feel about the opportunity.

34. Conservancy/保护

To qualify as a conservancy, a committeemust define the conservancy's boundary elect a representative conservancycommittee, negotiate a legal constitution, prove the committees ability to manage funds,and produce an acceptable plan for equitable distribution of wildlife-related benefits. Onceapproved, registered conservancies acquire the rights to a sustainable wildlife quota, set by theministry.

35. Good looks/外表光鲜

It is tempting to try to prove that goodlooks win votes, and many academics have tried. The difficulty is that beauty is in the eye ofthe beholder, and you cannot behold a politicians face without a veil ofextraneous prejudice getting in the way. Does George Bush possess a disarminggrin, or a facetious smirk?It’s hard to find anyone who can look at the president without assessing himpolitically as well as physically.

36. Track down research/追踪实验

Having tracked down research that is relevant to your area of interest the nexttask is to actually make sense of that research. This section is intended toshow you how to be critical of the research you are reviewing and how to check that the evidence is credible andrepresented appropriately. Unfortunately, this means discussing the ways inwhich research findings may be misrepresented.

37. Pidgins/ 洋泾滨语

Pidgins are languages that are born aftercontact between at least two languages. As many pidgins developed during the period of empireand international trade, one of the language parents was frequently a Europeanlanguage such as French or English, and the other language parent was thelanguage of the people with whom the Europeans were trading or whom they were colonising.Usually one of the languages provided the majority of vocabulary items and the other provided thegrammatical structure. When pidgins become learned as a mother tongue, theybecome known ascreoles. I am not going to discuss pidgins and creoles and contact languages assuch in this book in any depth.

38. Sustainable transportation system/可持续交通系统

A sustainable transportation system is onein which peoples needs and desires for access to jobs, commerce, recreation,culture and home are accommodated using a minimum of resources. Applying principles of sustainability totransportation will reduce pollution generated by gasoline-powered engines,noise, traffic congestion, land devaluation, urban sprawl, economicsegregation, and injury to drivers, pedestrians and cyclists. In addition, thecosts of commuting, shipping, housing and goods will be reduced.

Ultimately in a sustainable San Francisco,almost all trips to and withinthe City will be on public transit, foot or bicycle-as will a good part oftrips to the larger Bay Region. Walking through streets designed forpedestrians and bicycles will be more pleasant than walking through thosedesigned for the automobile. Street-front retail and commercial establishmentswill prosper from the large volumeof foot traffic drawn to an environment enhanced by trees, appropriatelydesigned “street furniture"(street lights, bicycle racks, benches, and thelike) and other people. Rents and property costs will be lowered as land foroff-street parking is no longerrequired or needed.

39. MBA/工管硕士

Deciding to go to business school isperhaps the simplest part of what can be a complicated process. With nearly 600accredited MBA programmes on offeraround the world, the choice of where to study can be overwhelming. Here we explainhow to choose theright school and course for you and unravel the application and fundingprocess. "Probably the majorityof people applying to business school are at a point in their careers wherethey know they want to shake things up, but they don't know exactly what theywant to do with their professional lives," says Stacy Blackman, an MBAadmissions consultant based in Los Angeles. "If that's the case with you,look at other criteria:culture, teaching method, location, and then pick a place that’s a good fit foryou with a strong general management programme. Super-defined career goalsdon’t have to be a part of this process."

40. Standard English/标准英语

At the beginning of the twenty-firstcentury, the relationship between standard and nonstandard language is,evidently, still an uncertain one. We are at a transitional point between two eras. We seem to beleaving an era when the rules of Standard English, as elected and defined byprescriptive grammarians, totally conditioned our sense of acceptable usage, so thatall other usages and varieties were considered to be inferior or corrupt, andexcluded from serious consideration. And we seem to be approaching an era whennonstandard usages and varieties, previously denigrated or ignored, areachieving a new presence and respectability within society, reminiscent of thatfound in Middle English, when dialect variation in literature was widespreadand uncontentious. But we are not there yet. The rise of Standard English hasresulted in a confrontation between the standard and nonstandard dimensions ofthe language which has lasted for over 200 years, and this has had traumatic consequences Which willtake some years to eliminate. Once people have been given an inferioritycomplex about the way they speak or write, they find it difficult to shake off.

41. Cause of unemployment/失业的原因

One cause of unemployment may bedownswings in the trade cycle, i.e. periods of recession. Another explanationof wide-scale unemployment refers to structural employment, structural unemployment arises from longer-termchanges in the economy, affecting specific industries, regions and occupations. Structuralunemployment often explains regional unemployment. Some regions of the UK suchas Central Scotland, and the North-West have higher rates of unemploymentbecause the traditionalheavy industries which locatedthere have gone into decline as they are replaced by cheaper imports from abroad. The newhigh-tech industries based on new technologies tend to be based in theSouth-East and along particular growth corridors.

42. Rudman/拉德曼

Rudman looks at how a poor understandingof Maths has led historians to false conclusions about the Mathematical sophistication of earlysocieties. Rudman's final observation-that ancient Greece enjoys unrivalled progress in thesubject whilefailing to teach it at school-leads to a radical punchline; Mathematics could be betterlearnt after we leaveschool.

43. Civil society/公民社会

For too long we have held preconceivednotions of the market and the state that wereseemingly independent of local societies and cultures. The debate about civilsociety ultimately is about how culture, market and state relate to each other.Concern about civil society, however, is not only relevant to central andeastern Europe and the developing world. It is very much of interest to theEuropean Union as well. The Civil Dialogue Initiated by the Commission in the1990s was a first attempt by the EU to give the institutions of society - andnot only governments and businesses-a voice at the policy-making tables inBrussels. The EU, like other international institutions, has a long way to goin trying to accommodatethe frequently divergent interests of non-governmental organizations andcitizen groups. There is increasing recognition that international and national governments have toopen up to civil society institutions.

44. The amount of sleep/睡眠时长

The amount of sleep you need depends onmany factors, especiallyyour age. Newborns sleep between 16 and 18 hours a day and preschool childrenshould sleep between 10 and 12 hours. Older children and teens need at leastnine hours to be well rested. For most adults, seven to eight hours a nightappears to the best amount of sleep. However, for some people" enoughsleep" may be as few as five hours or as many as 10 hours of sleep.

As you get older, your sleeping patterns change. Olderadults tend to sleep more lightly and awaken more frequently in the night thanyounger adults. This can have many causes including medical conditions andmedications used to treat them. But there’s no evidence that older adults needless sleep than younger adults.

Getting enough sleep is important to your healthbecause it boosts your immunesystem, which makes your body better able to fight disease. Sleep is necessaryfor your nervous system to work properly. Too little sleep makes you drowsy andunable to concentrate. It also impairs memory and physical performance.

So how many hours of sleep are enough forYou? Experts say that if you feel drowsy during the day — even during boringactivities - you are not getting enough sleep. Also, quality of sleep is justas important as quantity. People whose sleep is frequently interrupted or cutshort are not getting quality sleep.

If you experience frequent daytimesleepiness, even after increasing the amount of quality sleep you get, talk toyour doctor. He or she may be able to identify the cause of sleep problems and offeradvice on how to get a better night’s sleep.

45. Library/图书馆

The Dag Hammarskjold Library at UnitedNations Headquarters in New York is a library designated to facilitate the workof the United Nations and focuses mainly on the needs of the UN Secretariat anddiplomatic missions. Anyone with a valid United Nations Headquarters grounds pass, includingspecialized agencies, accredited media and NGO staff, is able to visit thelibrary. Due to securityconstraints in place at the United Nations Headquarters complex, the library isnot open to the general public.

46. The Milky Way System/银河系

Stars and the material between them arealmost always found in gigantic stellar systems called galaxies. Our own galaxy, the Milky WaySystem, happens to be one of the two largest systems in the Local Group of twodozen or so galaxies. The other is the Andromeda galaxy; it stretches more than onehundred thousand light-years from one end to the other, and it is located about two millionlight-years distant from us.

47. Friedman/弗里德曼

Friedman showed that, while people do savemore when they earn more, it is only to spendlater. Those in work save againsta time of sickness, unemployment or old age - but because the sick, unemployedand elderly spend their savings, overall consumption does not fall as people get richer.

48. The wholeness of thought/思维的整体性

The writer-or, for that matter, thespeaker conceives his thought whole, as a unity, but must express it in a lineof words; the reader- or listener-must take this line of symbols and from it reconstruct the originalwholeness of thought. There is little difficulty in conversation, because the listener receivesinnumerable cues from the physical expressions of the speaker; there is adialogue, and the listener can cut in at any time. The advantage of group discussion is thatpeople can overcome linear sequence of words by converging on ideas from different directions;which makes for wholeness of thought. But the reader is confronted by line uponline of printed symbols, without benefits of physical tone and emphasis or the possibility ofdialogue or discussion.

49. Life changes/生活变化

Research has suggested that major stressesin our lives are life changes,for example, moving house, marriage or relationship breakdown. Work-relatedfactors, includingunemployment and boredom, are also common causes of stress Differences in personality mayalso play a part.

50. Concept of culture/文化的概念

Manypeople today think of culture in the way that it was thought of in Europeduring the 18th and early 19th centuries. This concept of culture reflected inequalities withinEuropean societies and their colonies around the world. This understanding ofculture equates culture with civilization and contrasts both with nature ornon-civilization. According to this understanding of culture, some countriesare more civilized than others, and some people are more cultured than others.Anything that doesn't FIT into this category is labeled as chaos or anarchy.From this perspective, culture is closely tied to cultivation, which is theprogressive refinement of human behavior.

Inpractice, culture referred to elite goods and activities such as haute cuisine,high fashion or haute couture, museum-caliber art and classical music. The wordcultured referred to people who knew about and took part in these activities.For example, someone who used culture in this sense might argue that classicalmusic is more refined than music by working-class people, such as jazz or theindigenous music traditions of aboriginal peoples.

51. Bhutan/不丹

Bhutan is the last standing BuddhistKingdom in the World and, until recently, has preserved much of their culture since the 17thcentury by avoiding globalization and staying isolated from the world Internet,television, and western dress were banned from the country up until ten yearsago. But over the past ten years, globalization has begun to change in Bhutan,but things remain perfectlybalanced.

Bhutan is the only country in the worldthat has a 'GNH.5 You may think GNH is just another statistically based term with no real-lifeapplication, but it refers to "Gross National Happiness." The processof measuring GNH began when Bhutan opened to globalization. It measures peoples quality of lifeand makes sure that "material and spiritual developmenthappen together." Bhutan has done an amazing Job of finding this balance.Bhutan has continually been (ranked) as the happiest country in all of Asia,and the eighth Happiest Country in the world according to Business Week. In2007 Bhutan had the second fastest growing GDP in the world, at the same timeas maintainingtheir environment and cultural identity.

Bhutan is the only Buddhist Kingdom in theworld; Mahayana Buddhism is the official religion of Bhutan. Over twothirds ofthe people are Buddhist, and Buddhism is supported by the government bothpolitically and economically. The government gives subsidies to Buddhist monasteries, shrines,monks and other Buddhist programs.

52. Selling price/售价

Once an organization has its product tosell, it must then determinethe appropriate price to sell it at. The price is set by balancing many factors includingsupply-and-demand, cost, desired profit competition, perceived value, andmarket behavior. Ultimately, the final price is determined by what the marketis willing to exchangefor the product. Pricing theory can be quite complex because so many factorsinfluence what the purchaser decidesis a fair value.

53. Radioactivity/放射性

So why is it a concern? it is because radioactivity isinvisible and unsensed, and for that reason is perceived as scary nevertheless, weunderstand quite well the radiation levels to which people can be exposed without harm, andthose levels are orders of magnitudeabove the typical background levels.

54. People need exercise/人们需加强锻炼

One thing is certain. Most people do notget enough exercise in their ordinaryroutines. All of the advances of modem technology from electric can openers to power steering have made life easier,more comfortable and muchless physically demanding.Yet our bodies need activity, especially if they are carrying around too muchfat. Satisfying this need requires a definite plan, and a commitment.

55. Disadvantage in childhood/童年的缺点

Disadvantage in early childhood posesmultiple risks to childrensdevelopment. Factors such as low socioeconomic status, long-term unemploymentof parents, and social isolation may have lasting impacts on a child’s chance of reaching their fullpotential. Whilst not eliminating disadvantage, preschool education can help tolessen the effectsof these risk factors and can provide children with a better start to school.However, some of these factors may also be barriers to preschool attendance for groups thatwould benefit most from preschool education. In Australia, the early years ofchildren’s education is the responsibility of man government and non-governmentagencies and it occurs in a range of settings. Preschool is aimed at childrenaround four years of age to preparethem for compulsory schooling from the age of six years. In most states and territories,children can start full-time schooling at five years of age, when they enrollin a kindergarten or preparatory year. In 2001 Just over half of five-year olds(57%) were at school with about a third (34%) attending preschool. While insome states and territories children can commence preschool before they turn four,participation rates for three-year olds are much lower than four-year olds (24%compared with 56% for four-year olds in 2001). The preschool participation rateof four-year olds in 2001 (56%) was similar to the rate in 1991 (58%).

56. Fiber segments/纤维部分

The trigger point causes the rest of thefiber segments to be stretchedto capacity. It becomes a tight band. Normally the regular contracting andreleasing of these little segments circulates blood in the capillaries thatsupply them (the segments) with their nutrients. When they hold this contraction, blood flowis stopped to that area, there is not an oxygen supply, and waste products arenot pushed out. Thetrigger point then sends out pain signals until the trigger point is put in aposition of rest again.

57. Land temperature/陆地温度

During the day, the sun heats up both theocean surface and the land. Water is a good absorber of the energy from thesun. The land absorbs much of the sun's energy as well. However, water heats up much moreslowly than land and so the air above the land will be warmer compared to the air over the ocean.The warm air over the land will rise throughout the day, causing low pressureat the surface. Over the water, high surface pressure will form because of thecolder air. To compensate,the air will sink over the ocean. The wind will blow from the higher pressureover the water to lower pressure over the land causing the sea breeze. The seabreeze strength will vary depending on the temperature difference between the land and the ocean.

58. Higher education qualifications /高等教育资格证

Higher education qualifications provide asubstantial advantagein the labor market. Higher education graduates are less likely to be unemployed and tend tohave higher incomesthan those without such qualifications. Having a highly educated workforce can also leadto increased productivity and innovation and make Australia more competitive in the globalmarket.

59. Steven Pinker/史蒂文平克

Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologistbest known for his book "The Language Instinct" has called music"auditory cheesecake, an exquisite confection crafted to tickle thesensitive spots of at east six of our mental faculties." If it vanished from our species,he said, “the rest of our lifestyle would be virtually unchanged." Others have arguedthat, on the contrary,music, along with art and literature, is part of what makes people human; itsabsence would have a brutalizing effect. Philip Ball, a British science writerand an avid music enthusiast, comes down somewhere in the middle. He says thatmusic is ingrained in our auditory, cognitive and motor functions. We have amusic instinct asmuch as a language instinct, and could not rid ourselves of it if we tried.

60. Fiction and life /小说与生活

The precise relationship between fictionand life has been debated extensively. Most modem critics agree that, whateverits apparent factual content or verisimilitude, fiction is finally to beregarded as a structured Imitation of life and should not be confused with aliteral transcriptionof life itself. While fiction is a work of the imagination rather than reality, it can also bebased closely on real events, sometimes experienced by the author. In a work offiction, the author is not the same as the narrator, the voice that tells thestory. Authors maintain a distance from their characters. Sometimes thatdistance is obvious for instance, if a male writer tells a story from the pointof view of a female character. Other times it is not so obvious, especially ifwe know something of the author’s life and there are clear connections betweenthe story and the author s life. The writer of fiction is free to choose his orher subject matter and is free to invent, select, and arrange fictional elements to achieve his or herpurpose. The elements of fiction are the different components that make up awork of fiction. All literature explores a theme or significant truth expressedin various elements such as character, plot, setting, point of view, style, andtone that are essential and specific to each work of fiction. All of theseelements bind a literary work into a consistent whole and give it unity.Understanding these elements can help the reader gain insight about life, humanmotives, and experience. Such insight is one of the principal aims of an effective workof fiction; when readers are ableto perceive it, they develop a sense of literary judgment that is capable ofenriching their lives. The following sections describe elements that should beconsidered in the analysisof fiction.

61. Global problem/全球性问题

Youmay well ask why science did not warn us of global warming sooner; I think thatthere are several reasons. We were from the 1970s until the end of the centurydistracted by the important global problem of stratospheric ozone depletion, which weknew was manageable. We threw all our efforts into it and succeeded but hadlittle time to spend on climate change. Climate science was also neglectedbecause twentieth-century science failed to recognize the true nature of Earth as a responsiveself-regulating entity. Biologists were so carried away by Darwin’s greatvision that they failed to see that living things were tightly coupled to theirmaterial environment and that evolution concerns the

wholeEarth system with living organisms an integral part of it. Earth is not the Goldilocksplanet of the solar system sitting at the right place for life. It was in thisfavorable state some two billion years ago but now our planet has to work hard,against ever-increasing heat from the Sun, to keep itself habitable We have chosenthe worst of times to add to its difficulties.

62. Bizarre universe/奇怪的宇宙

We live in a bizarre Universe. One of thegreatest mysteries in the whole of science is the prospect that 75% of theUniverse is made up from a mysterious substance known as 'Dark Energy', which causes anacceleration of the cosmic expansion. Since a further 21% of the Universe ismade up from invisible ‘Cold Dark Matter’ that can only be detected through itsgravitational effects, the ordinary atomic matter making up the rest isapparently only 4% of the total cosmic budget.

These discoveries require a shift in our perception asgreat as that made after Copernicus revelation that the Earth moves around the Sun. This lecture willstart by reviewing the chequered history of Dark Energy, not only sinceEinstein’s proposal for a similar entity in 1917, but by tracing the conceptback to Newton's ideas. This lecture will summarise the current evidence for Dark Energy andfuture surveys in which UCL is heavily involved: the "Dark EnergySurvey" the Hubble Space Telescope and the proposed Euclid space mission.

63. Part-time Job/兼职

Students are increasingly finding itnecessary to obtain employment in order to subsidize their income during theirtime in higher education. The extra income helps to pay for necessities, to maintain a sociallife and to buy clothes, and holding a part-time job helps students to gain skills for lifeafter university or college. Using a part-time job to cut down on borrowing isa sound investment, as it reduces the debt that will be waiting to be paid off aftergraduation. How many hours students are currently working each week duringterm-time is not really certain. Some institutions advise that students shouldnot work more than ten hours a week, and there are others that set a higherrecommended limitof fifteen hours a week. There is no doubt that some students exceed even fifteen hoursa week.

64. Environmentalists /环境学家

Although environmentalists have been warning about thissituation for decades, many other people are finally beginning to realise thatif we don't act soon it will be too late. The good news is that more and more businessesand governments are beginning to understand that without a healthy environment the global economyand everything that depends on it will be seriously endangered. And they arebeginning to take positiveaction.

65. Psychological theories/心理学理论

Attempts to apply psychological theoriesto education can falter on the translation of the theory into educationalpractice. Often, this translation is not clear. Therefore, when a program doesnot succeed, it is not clear whether the lack of success was due to theinadequacy of the theory or the inadequacy of the implementation of the theory.A set of basicprinciples for translating a theory into practice can help clarify just what aneducational implementation should (and should not) look like. This articlepresents 12 principles for translating a triarchic theory of successfulintelligence into educational practice.

66. The sun and the moon/日与月

In these distant times, the sun was seento make its daily journeyacross the sky. At night the moon appeared. Every new night the moon waxed orwaned a little and on a few nights, it did not appear at all. At night thegreat dome of the heavens was dotted with tiny specks of light. They became known as thestars. It was thought that every star in the heavens had its own purpose andthat the secrets ofthe universe could be discovered by making a study of them.

It was well known that there werewandering stars, they appeared in different nightly positions against theirneighbours and they became known as planets. It took centuries, in fact, ittook millennia, for man to determinethe true nature of these wandering stars and to evolve a model of the world toaccommodate them and to predicttheir positions in the sky.

67. Wind/

Wind is formed by the circulation of air.The sun heats up some parts of the sea and the land. The air among the hot spot warms up and rises.The cold air drops because it is heavy. Some wind circulates within a small area. Others blow inthe entire globe.

68. White paper/白纸

Let us then suppose the mind to be, as wesay, white paper, voidof all characters, without any ideas: - How comes it to be furnished? Whence comesit by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on it with analmost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason andknowledge? To this, I answer, in one word, from experience.

69. Gender discrimination/性别歧视

Discrimination against women has beenalleged in hiring practices for many occupations, but it is extremely difficultto demonstrate sex-biased hiring. A change in the way symphony orchestrasrecruit musicians provides an unusual way to test for sex-biased hiring. Toovercome possible biases in hiring, most orchestras revised their auditionpolicies in the 1970s and 1980s. A major change involved the use of blind'auditions with a screen' to conceal the identity of the candidate from thejury. Female musicians in the top five symphony orchestras in the United Stateswere less than 5% of all players in 1970 but are 25% today. We ask whetherwomen were more likely to be advanced and hired with the use of blind'auditions. Using data from actual auditions in an individual fixed-effectsframework, we find that the screen increases by 50% the probability a woman will be advanced out ofcertain preliminary rounds. The screen also enhances, by severalfold, thelikelihood a female contestant will be the winner in the final round. Usingdata on orchestra personnel, the switch to blind' auditions can explain between30% and 55% of the increase in the proportion female among new hires andbetween 25% and 46% of the increase in the percentage female in the orchestrassince 1970.

70. Studying places/学习地点

You can study anywhere. Obviously, someplaces are betterthan others. Libraries, study lounges or private rooms are best. Above all, theplace you choose to study should not be distracting Distractions can build up. and the firstthing you know, you're out of time and out of luck. Make choosing a goodphysical environment a partof your study habits.

71. Cureness/可爱

Cuteness in offspring is a potentprotective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants.Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a"kindchenschema" (infant schema) where infant facial features serveas "innate releasing mechanisms" for instinctual caregivingbehaviors. We propose extending the concept of cuteness beyond visual featuresto include positive infant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioral andneuroimaging studies links this extended concept of cuteness to simple"instinctual" behaviors and to caregivingprotection and complexemotions. We review how cuteness supports key parental capacities by ignitingfast privileged neural activity followed by slower processing in large brainnetworks also involved in play, empathy, and perhaps even higher-order moralemotions.

72. Light pollution/光污染

The widespread use of artificial light inmodem societies means that light pollution is an increasingly common feature ofthe environments humans inhabit. This type of pollution is exceptionally high incoastal regions of tropic and temperate zones, as these are areas of high ratesof human population growth and settlement. Light pollution is a threat for manyspecies that inhabit these locations, particularly those whose ecology orbehavior depends, in some way, on natural cycles of light and dark. Artificiallight is known to have detrimental effects on the ecology of sea turtles,particularly at the hatchling stage when they emerge from nests on natalbeaches and head towards the sea. Under natural conditions, turtles hatch predominantlyat night (although some early morning and late afternoon emergences occur) andshow an innate and well-directed orientation to the water, relying mostly on lightcues that attract them toward the brighter horizon above the sea surface.Artificial lighting on beaches is strongly attractive to hatchlings and cancause them to move away from the sea and interfere with their ability to orient in aconstant direction. Ultimately, this disorientation due to light pollution canlead to death of hatchlings from exhaustion, dehydration and predation.

73. Australian women novelist/澳洲女作家

In the literary world, it was an acceptedassumption that the 1970s was a time of unprecedented growth in homegrownAustralian fiction. And everybody was reading and talking about books by youngAustralian women.

But it was notuntilrecentlythat a researcher was able to measure just how many novels were published inthat decade, and she found that there had been a decline in novels byAustralian writers overall, but confirmed an increase in women's novels.

It is this sort of research - testingideas about literary history - that is becoming possible with the spread of'Digital Humanities.'

The intersection of Humanities and digitaltechnologies is opening up opportunities in the fields of literature,linguistics, history and language that were not possible without computationalmethods and digitised resources to bring information together in an accessibleway.

Transcription software is being developedfor turning scans of books and documents into text, as the field of digitalhumanities really takes off.

74. Omniscience/全知

Omniscience may be a foible of men, but itis not so of books. Knowledge, as Johnson said, is of two kinds, you may know athing yourself, and you may know where to find it. Now the amount which you mayactually know yourself must, at its best, be limited, but what you may know ofthe sources ofinformation may, with proper training, become almost boundless. And here comethe value and useof reference books—the working of one book in connexion with another—andapplying your own intelligenceto both. By this means we get as near to that omniscient volume which tellseverything as ever we shall get, and although the single volume or work whichtells everything does not exist, there is a vast number of reference books inexistence, a knowledge and proper use of which is essential to everyintelligent person. Necessary as I believe reference books to be, they caneasily be made to be contributoryto idleness, and too mechanical a use should not be made of them.

75. Crime/罪行

A crime is generally a deliberate act thatresults in harm, physical or otherwise, toward one or more people, in a mannerprohibited by law. The determination of which acts are to be consideredcriminal has varied historically, and continues to do so among cultures andnations. When a crime is committed, a process of discovery, trial by judge orjury, conviction, and punishment occurs. Just as what is considered criminalvaries between jurisdictions, so does the punishment, but elements ofrestitution and deterrence are common.

76. Kathryn Mewes/凯瑟琳梅维新

Kathryn Mewes does not meet bohemian,hippy parents in her line of work. Typically one, or both, of the parents shesees work in the City of London.

“Professionals seek professionals,” shesays. Originally a nanny, Mewes is now a parenting consultant, advising couplesprivately on changing their child’s behaviour, as well as doing corporateseminars for working parents.

Her clients find they are unprepared forthe chaos and unpredictability that having a child can entail. “Parents aregetting older, they have been in control their wholelives and been successful. Suddenly a baby turns up and lifeturns on its head.”

Nicknamed the “Three-Day Nanny” because ofher pledge to fix behavioral problems in children under the age of 12 withinthree days, she is filming a new Channel 4 television series demonstrating hertechniques. The roleof the parenting consultant - distinct from that of a nanny - has developed,she says, as people are used to buying in expertise, such as personal trainersor, in her case, parenting advice.

77. Daniel Harris/丹尼尔哈里斯

Daniel Harris, a scholar of consumptionand style, has observed that until photography finally supplanted illustration as the primary means ofadvertising clothingin the 1950s, glamour inheredless in the face of the drawing, which was by necessity schematic andgeneralized, than in the sketch’s attitude, posture, and gestures, especiallyin the strangely dainty positions of the hands. Glamour once resided soemphatically in the stance of the model that the faces in the illustrationscannot really be said to have expressions at all, but angles or tilts.

78. Children sleep patterns/儿童睡眠模式

Children have sound sleep patterns. They can successfullysleep for 8-9 hours and get up at a fixed time. But teenagers dont. Their need of earlystart to schools or other schedules can influencetheir sleep patterns. Despite these factors, they actually need longer sleeptime.

79. Utility/公共设施(收集中)

80. Communication model/通信模型(收集中)

81. Paris/巴黎 #4772

Paris is very old there has been a settlementthere for at least 6,000 years and its shape has been determined in part by theRiver Seine, and in part by the edicts of Frances rulers. But the great boulevardswe admire today are relatively new, and were constructed to prevent any morebarricades beingcreated by the rebelliouspopulation; that work was carried out in the middle 19th century. The earlierParis had been in part a maze of narrow streets and alleyways. But you canimagine that the work was not only highly expensive, but caused great distressamong the half a million or so whose houses were simply razed, and whose neighbourhoodsdisappeared. What is done cannot usually be undone, especially when buildingsare torn down.

82. Plagiarism/抄袭

How is plagiarism detected? It is usuallyeasy for lecturers to identify plagiarism within students work. The universityalso actively investigated plagiarism in students assessed work through electronic detectionsoftware called Turnitin. This software compares students work against text on theInternet, in journal articles and within previously submitted work and highlights any matchesit finds.

83. Platypus/鸭嘴兽(收集中)

84. Tropical forests/热带雨林

Charles Darwin knew intuitively thattropical forests were places of tremendous intricacy and energy. He and his cohort of scientificnaturalists were awedby the beauty of the Neotropics, where they collected tens of thousands of species new to science.But they couldn't have guessed at the complete contents of the rain forest, andthey had no idea of its valueto humankind.

85. Intractable debt/恼人的债务

Books and articles highlightingintractable debt, poverty and development abound in both the academic andpopular literature. This addition to the debate is both timely and interestingas it subsumes the economic debate to the broader social, political,environmental and institutional context of debt in developing countries.Debt-forDevelopment Exchanges: History and New Applications is intended for a wideaudience including: academics from a range of disciplines (including accountingand finance); non-Govemment organizations (NGOs); civil society groups; and,both debtor and creditor governments and public sector organization. ProfessorRoss Buckley, author and editor has developed an international profile in thearea of debt relief and this book is the outcome of an Australian ResearchCouncil (ARC) Discovery grant to explore debt-for development mechanisms thatrelieve debt, improve development outcomes from aid, are practically andpolitically attractive to creditors and contribute to regional security.

86. Alchemy/点金术

To learn the speech of alchemy, an earlyform of chemistryin which people attempted to turn metals into gold, it helps to think back to atime when there was no science: no atomic number or weight, no periodic chartno list of elements, to the alchemiststhe universe was not made of leptons, bosons, gluons, and quarks. Instead, itwas made of substances, and one substance-say, walnut oil - could be just as pure as another - say,silver - even though modern chemistry would say one is heterogeneous and theother homogeneous. Without knowledge of atomic structures how would it be possible to tell elementsfrom compounds?

87. History books/历史书

What history books tell us about the pastis not everything that happened, but what historians haveselected. They cannot put in everything: choiceshave to be made. Choices must similarly be made about which aspects of the pastshould be formally taught to the next generation in the shape of school historylessons. So, for example, when a national school curriculum for England andWales was first discussed at the end of the 1980s, the history curriculum wasthe subject of considerable public and media interest. Politicians argued about it; peoplewrote letters to the press about it; the Prime Minister of the time, MargaretThatcher, intervenedin the debate. Let us think first about the question of content. There were twomain camps on this issue – those who thought the history of Britain should takepride of place, and those whofavored what was referred to as 'world history'.

88. SpaceX/太空探索技术公司

SpaceXs Falcon 9 rocket lifted offfrom Cape Canaveral, Florida, on Friday at 1845 GMT (1445 EDT), reaching orbit9 minutes later.

Therocket lofted an uncrewed mockupof SpaceX’s Dragon capsule, which is designed to one day carry both crew andcargo to orbit. “This has been a good day for SpaceX and a promising development forthe US human spaceflight program,” said Robyn Ringuette of SpaceX in a webcastof the launch.

Ina teleconference with the media on Thursday, SpaceX’s CEO, Paypal co-founderElon Musk, said he would consider the flight 100 percent successful if itreached orbit. “Even if we prove out just that the first stage functionscorrectly, I’d still say that’s a good day for a test,” he said. “It’s a greatday if both stages work correctly.”

SpaceXhopes to win a NASA contractto launch astronauts to the International Space Station using the Falcon 9. USgovernment space shuttles, which currently make these trips, are scheduled to retire for safety reasonsat the end of 2010.