【易学PTE】高频预测 - 10月合集3.0(更新日期2018-10-12)


PART 1Read Aloud

1.1     Akimbo

Akimbo, this must be one of theodder-looking words in the language and puzzles us in part because it doesn’tseem to have any relatives, What’s more, it is now virtually a fossil word,until recently almost invariably found in arms akimbo, a posture in which aperson stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one signalingimpatience, hostility, or contempt.

1.2     Blue

While blue is one of the most popularcolors, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food is rare in nature. Foodresearchers say that when humans searched for food, they learned to avoid toxicor spoiled objects, which were often blue, black or purple. When food dyed blueis served to study subjects, they lose appetite.

1.3     Carbon Dioxide Emission

When countries assess their annual carbondioxide emissions, they count up their cars and power stations, but bush firesare not included – presumably because they are deemed to be events beyond humancontrol. In Australia, Victoria alone sees several hundred thousand hectaresburn each year; in both 2004 and more recently, the figure has been over 1million hectares.

1.4     Productive Capacity

The core of the problem was the immensedisparity between the country‘s productive capacity and the ability of peopleto consume. Great innovations in productive techniques during and after the warraised the output of industry beyond the purchasing capacity of U.S. farmersand wage earners.

1.5     Himalayas

Although it hails from a remote region ofthe western Himalayas. This plant now looks entirely at home on the banks ofEnglish rives. Brought to the UK in 1839. it quickly escaped from Victoriangardens and colonized river banks and damp woodlands. In the Himalayas the plantis held in check by various pests, but take these away and it grows andreproduces unhindered. Now it is spreading across Europe, New Zealand, Canadaand the US.

1.6     Pluto

Pluto lost its official status as a planetyesterday, when the International Astronomical Union downsized the solar systemfrom nine to eight planets. Although there had been passionate debate at theGeneral Assembly Meeting in Prague about the definition of a planet – andwhether Pluto met the specifications – the audience greeted the decision toexclude it with applause.

1.7     Father

Ever since I remembered, father woke up atfive thirty every morning, made us all breakfast and read newspaper. After thathe would go to work. He worked as a writer. It was a long time before I realizehe did this for a living. Fiscal Year At the beginning of each fiscal yearfunds are allocated to each State account in accordance with the University’sfinancial plan. Funds are allocated to each account by object of expenditure.Account managers are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are availablein the appropriate object before initiating transactions to use the funds.

1.8     Lincoln

Lincoln’s apparently radical change ofmind about his war power to emancipate slaves was caused by the escalatingscope of the war, which convinced him that any measure to weaken theConfederacy and strengthen the Union war effort was justifiable as a militarynecessity.

1.9     Shakespeare

A young man from a small provincial town-- a man without independent wealth, without powerful family connections andwithout a university education -- moves to London in the late 1580‘s and, in aremarkably short time, becomes the greatest playwright of all time. How wasthis achievement of magnitude made? How does Shakespeare become Shakespeare?

1.10  Akimbo

Akimbo, this must be one of theodder-looking words in the language and puzzles us in part because it doesn’tseem to have any relatives, What’s more, it is now virtually a fossil word,until recently almost invariably found in arms akimbo, a posture in which aperson stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward, one signalingimpatience, hostility, or contempt.

1.11  Yellow

Yellowis the most optimistic color, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers mostoften in yellow rooms and babies cry more. The reason may be that yellow is thehardest color on the eye, so it can be overpowering if overused.  

1.12  Edison and Tesla

Teslaactually worked for Edison early in his career. Edison offered to pay him themodern equivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having withhis DC generators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison’s machines and when he askedfor the money he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say,“Tesla, you don’t understand our American humor.”

1.13  Yellow Tulip

How do we imagine the unimaginable? Ifwe’re asked to think of an object - say, a yellow tulip – a picture immediatelyforms in our mind’s eye. But what if we try to imagine a concept such as thesquare root of negative number?

1.14  Non-Material Culture

For the purposes of argument, culture isdivided into material and non-material, and the speaker‘s aim is to show howthey both affect each other. Material developments in tools and technology canaffect non-material culture, our customs and beliefs, and the other way around.Genetics is used as an example as it has changed the way we think about life,but also our beliefs have affected its rate of development.

1.15  Introvert and Extrovert

Introvert (or those of us with introvertedtendencies) tends to recharge by spending time alone. They lose energy frombeing around people for long periods of time, particularly large crowed.Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy from other people. Extrovertsactually find their energy is sapped when they spend too much time alone. Theyrecharge by being social.

1.16  Incentive Pay Schemes

If bonus or incentive pay schemes work sowell for chief executive and bankers, why does everyone not get them? Afterall, many jobs involve making important decisions or taking risks is thereanything about corporate decision and financial risks that makes thesecategories of work special in terms of how they need to be incentivized andrewarded?

1.17  Population Growth

How quickly is the world’s populationgrowing? In the United States and other developed countries, the current growthrate is very low. In most developing countries, the human population is growingat a rate of 3 people per second. Because of this bustling growth rate, thehuman population is well on its way to reaching 9 billion within lifetime.

1.18  Price on Carbon Emissions

This is what needs to happen on climatechange: the world needs to put a price on carbon emissions and let the marketrespond. If politicians pretend this can be done without pain, it will probablyresult in another five to ten years of pretending to take action.

1.19  Augustus

Augustus was given the powers of anabsolute monarch, but he presented himself as the preserver of republicantraditions. He treated the Senate, or state council, with great respect, andwas made Consul year after year. He successfully reduced the political power ofthe army by retiring many soldiers, but giving them land or money to keep theirloyalty.

1.20  Industrial Revolution

As to the Industrial Revolution, onecannot dispute today the fact that it has succeeded in inaugurating in a numberof countries a level of mass prosperity which was undreamt of in the dayspreceding the Industrial Revolution. But, on the immediate impact of IndustrialRevolution, there were substantial divergences among writers.

1.21  Major Breeding Areas

Major breeding areas, and breedingislands, are shown as dark green areas or darts. Open darts shown nobreedingrecords on islands, and are also used for offshore sightings, that is fromships or boats. Other areas where species is not meant to be seen are plainpale green, with pale green hatching where records are usually sparse.

1.22  Diversity of Language

Thediversity of human language may be compared to the diversity of the naturalworld. Just as the demise of plant species reduces genetic diversity, anddeprives humanity or potential medical and biological resources. So extinctionof language takes with it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.

1.23  Stress

This study tracked about 1,000 adults inthe United States, and they ranged in age from 34 to 93, and they started thestudy by asking, 'How much stress have you experienced in the last year?' Theyalso asked, 'How much time have you spent helping out friends, neighbors,people in your community?' And then they used public records for the next fiveyears to find out who died.

1.24  Vanilla

Theuniquely scented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity onthe world’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron.But highly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamentallife cycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling tokeep up with the increasing demand for the product.

1.25  Living Room

Living room is the most used part thatwithholds most of the traffic coming in and out of the house. It is highlyrecommended that the flooring should be strong enough that it can endure allsuch amendments done with your furniture or to the increasing and decreasingratio of visitors. For this purpose, you can opt for hardwood flooring. Beingclassy and sophisticated in look it is the perfect choice for your living roomwhenever you are remodeling your home.

1.26  Teacher’s instruction

Inclasses, your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying. Theinformation that they provide will be important to know when you take tests.You must be able to take good written notes from what your teacher say.

1.27  Solar Energy

Solar energy is an excellent source ofsupplying power to homes and companies and by utilizing solar power you're notmerely protecting the environment from becoming polluted but also you aresaving the rest of the earth's natural resources. Capturing solar energy doesnot contribute to any pollution and does not harm the atmosphere. One of thefactors why many individuals are still hesitant to make use of solar power isbecause it is expensive. The need of big location of space is another reasonwhy people aren't taking into consideration solar power.

1.28  No ordinary book

Thisbook is no ordinary book, and should not be read through from beginning to end.It contains many different adventures, and the path you take will depend on thechoices you make along the way. The success or failure of your mission willdepend on the decisions you make, so think carefully before choosing.

PART 2: Repeat Sentence



1.           39.5% of Californian residents didn’t speakEnglish at home.

2.           A computer virus destroyed all my files.

3.           A demonstrated ability to write clear, correctand concise English is bigotry.

4.           A demonstrated ability to write clear, correctand concise English is bigotry.

5.           All postgraduate students should participate inthe seminar.

6.           Answering this complex question with a simpleyes or no is absolutely impossible.

7.           Any text or references you make should be citedappropriately in the footnotes.

8.           As for me, it is a strategy to go to judicialreview.

9.           Biographical information should be removedbefore the publication of the results.

10.        Companies need to satisfy customers’ needs ifthey want to be successful.

11.        Dr. Green’s office has been moved to the secondfloor of the building.

12.        Due to rising demand for courses, theuniversity should increase the staff, too.

13.        Eating too much will do harm to your health.

14.        Elephant is the largest land living mammal.

15.        Even with the permit, finding a parking spot oncampus is still impossible.

16.        Globalization has been an overwhelming urbanand urbanization phenomenon.

17.        He was not the only one to call for legalreforms/a legal reform in the 16th century.

18.        I can’t attend the lecture because I have adoctor appointment.

19.        I used to have a cup of coffee with one sugar.

20.        I will be in my office every day from 11 to 12.

21.        I will be in my office every Tuesday andThursday.

22.        I would like cheese and tomato sandwiches onwhite bread with orange juice.

23.        If you forgot your student number, you shouldcontact Jenny Brice.

24.        If you have problems, please contact yourtutor.

25.        Interpreters are not readily available in thisdepartment.

26.        Mary felt happy when she learned the results ofthe election.

27.        Meeting with tutors could be arranged forstudents who need additional help.

28.        Meteorology is a detailed study of earth’satmosphere.

29.        Most animals have triangular vocal cords, butthe lion’s mighty pipes are square.

30.        Newspapers around the world are reportingstories of presidents.

31.        Please register your student email account atyour earliest convenience.

32.        Portfolio is due to the internal review officeno later than Tuesday.

33.        Put the knife and fork next to the spoon nearthe edge of the table.

34.        Residents hall is closed prior to the academicbuilding closing time at the end of the semester.

35.        She has been in the library for a long time.

36.        Spiritualism is defined as a system of beliefor religious practice.

37.        Student loans are now available forinternational students.

38.        Student residents hall/accommodation is veryclose to the academic building … in a walking distance.

39.        Students can download the materials from thewebsite.

40.        Students will not be given credits forassignments submitted after the due date.

41.        The clear evidence between brain events andbehavioral events is fascinating.

42.        The course registration is open early March fornew students.

43.        The first person in space was from the SovietUnion.

44.        The office opens on Mondays and Thursdaysdirectly follow the freshman seminar.

45.        The opposition has so far been unresponsive toour proposal.

46.        The recent study has thrown out the validity ofthe argument.

47.        The seminar on writing skills has beencanceled.

48.        The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchyand parliamentary democracy.

49.        The verdict depends on which side was moreconvincing to the jury.

50.        The wheelchair lift has been upgraded thismonth.

51.        There is a pharmacy on campus near the store.

52.        There will be ample opportunities to askquestions about the presentation.

53.        To receive the reimbursement, you must keep theoriginal receipts.

54.        Tomorrow’s lecture will discuss educationalpolicy in the United States.

55.        Unfortunately, the two most interestingeconomic elections clash on my time table.

56.        Vessels carry blood from the heart to otherpart of the body.

57.        We are delighted to have professor Robert tojoin our faculty.

58.        We are not going to accept the assignment afterthe due date on Friday.

59.        We must hand in our assignments by the end ofthe week.

60.        You come with me. The others stay here.


Apreliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break.

Athorough bibliography is needed at the end of every assignment.

Allthe assignments must be submitted by the end of this week.

Basketballwas created in 1891 by a physician and a physical instructor.

Beinga vegan means not eating any other meat.

Conferencesare always scheduled on the third Wednesday of the month.

Couldyou pass the material to students that are in your row?

Don’tforget to hand in your assignments by the end of next week.

Ididn’t understand the author’s point of view on immigration.

Imissed yesterday’s lecture. Can I borrow your notes?

Iused to have a cup of coffee with one sugar.

I’mglad you got here safely.

InEurope, the political pressure is similar regarding globalization.

Itis important to take gender into account when discussing the figures.

Makesure you correctly cite all your sources.

Mostuniversity teaching takes place in lectures and seminars.

Nomore than four people can be in the lab at once.

Onbehalf of our department, I would like to thank you for your participation.

Onthis project, you will be asked to work as a group of three.

Physicsis the subject of matters and energy.

Pleasefinish all the reading chapters before the field trip.

Reservedcollection books can be borrowed up to three hours.

Shehas been in the library for a long time.

Sheis an expert of the 18th century French literature.

Sportis the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.

Studentsare so scared of writing essays because they have never learned how.

Studentsshould take advantages of the online resources/internet before attending thelecture.

Theauthor expressed a (n.) that modern readers (adv.) cannot accept.

Thecollege welcomes students from all over the world.

Thecontext/contest includes both the land history and the human history.

Thefirst few sentences of an essay should capture the readers’ attention.

Theglass is not the real solid, because it doesn’t have crystal structure.

Thelecture tomorrow will discuss the educational policies in the United States.

Theminimal mark for Distinction is no less than 75%.

Theoriginal Olympic Games were celebrated as religious festivals.

ThePsychology Department is looking for volunteers to be involved in researchprojects.

Thereal reason for global hunger is not the lack of food, but poverty.

Theresult of the study will be published next month.

Thestudent welfare officer can help with questions about exam technique.

Thetest selected materials from all chapters in this course this semester.

Thetheoretical proposal was challenged to grass.

Thereare varying plagiarism across different university departments.

Thereis no entrance fee for tonight’s lecture.

Weshould take gender into account when analyzing the data.

You should include your name and identificationnumber in the registration form.

PART 4Summarize Written Text


1.1     The charging car

Here's a term you're going to hear much moreoften: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It's what you and many otherpeople will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, beforeyou drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car - your pluginvehicle. Its big on board batteries will have been fully charged overnight,with enough power for you to drive 50-100 kilometers through city traffic.

When you arrive at work you'll plug in yourcar once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form yourcar's batteries to the electricity grid. One of the things you did when youbought your car was to sign a contract with your favorite electricity supplier,allowing them to draw a limited amount of power from your car's batteriesshould they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or very high wholesale spotpower prices. The price you get for the power the distributor buys from yourcar would not only be most attractive to you, it would be a good deal for themtoo, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If,driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat,a relatively small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel orcompressed natural gas, even bio-fuel, would automatically cut in, driving agenerator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your journey.

Concerns over 'peak oil', increasinggreenhouse gas emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this centurythere could be five times as many motor vehicles registered worldwide as thereare now, mean that the world's almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuelsfor transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.


Plug-in vehicles with a small and efficientengine will be what many people drive to work in ten years and more from now,which can be fully charged for you to drive 50-100 km, and also, electricitysuppliers can draw a limited amount of power from your car’s batteries shouldthey need to, because the world’s almost total dependence on petroleum basedfuels for transport is unsustainable. (Word count: 70)

1.2     Rosetta Stone

When the RosettaStone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that covered its surfacewere quickly copied. Printers ink was applied to the Stone and white paper waslaid over it. When the paper was removed, it revealed an exact copy of thetextbut in reverse. Since then, many copies or facsimiles have been made usinga variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the Stone accumulated manylayers of material left over from these activities, despite attempts to removeany residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousands of human handseager to touch the Stone added to the problem.

An opportunity forinvestigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose when this famous object wasmade the centerpiece of the Cracking Codes exhibition at The British Museum in1999. When work commenced to remove all but the original, ancient material, thestone was black with white lettering. As treatment progressed, the differentsubstances uncovered were analyzed. Grease from human handling, a coating ofcarnauba wax from the early 1800s and printers ink from 1799 were cleaned awayusing cotton wool swabs and liniment of soap, white spirit, acetone andpurified water. Finally, white paint in the text, applied in 1981, which hadbeen left in place until now as a protective coating, was removed with cottonswabs and purified water. A small square at the bottom left corner of the faceof the Stone was left untouched to show the darkened wax and the white infill.


Since the RosettaStone was discovered in 1799, many copies or facsimiles have been made using avariety of materials, along with many thousands of human hands eager to touchthe Stone, causing the surface of the Stone accumulated many layers ofmaterials, and an opportunity for investigation and cleaning the stone arose atthe British Museum in 1999, after which all but the origin was removed, and thestone was black with white lettering.(Word count: 75)

1.3     American English

American English is, without doubt, the mostinfluential and powerful variety of English in the world today. There are manyreasons for this. First, the United States is, at present, the most powerfulnation on earth and such power always brings with it influence. Indeed, thedistinction between a dialect and a language has frequently been made byreference to power. As has been said, A language is a dialect with an army.Second, America's political influence is extended through American popularculture, in particular through the international reach of American films(movies, of course) and music. As Kahane has pointed out, The internationallydominant position of a culture results in a forceful expansion of itslanguage.... the expansion of language contributes... to the prestige of theculture behind it. Third, the international prominence of American English isclosely associated with the extraordinarily quick development of communicationstechnology. Microsoft is owned by an American, Bill Gates. This means acomputers default setting for language is American English, although of coursethis can be changed to suit one's own circumstances. In short, the increasedinfluence of American English is caused by political power and the resultantdiffusion of American culture and media, technological advance and the rapiddevelopment of communications technology.


The increased influence of American English iscaused by political power and the resultant diffusion of American culture andmedia, technological advance and the rapid development of communicationstechnology. (Word count: 29)

1.4     Mini war

In such anenvironment, warfare is no longer purely directed against the militarypotential of adversarial states. It is rather directed at infiltrating allareas of their societies and to threaten their existences. The comparativelyeasy access to weapons of mass destruction, in particular relatively low-costbiological agents, is of key concern. Both governmental and nongovernmentalactors prefer to use force in a way that can be characterized as unconventionalor also as small wars. War waged according to conventions is an interstatephenomenon. The small war is the archetype of war, in which the protagonistsacknowledge no rules and permanently try to violate what conventions do exist.The protagonists of the small war observe neither international standards norarms control agreements. They make use of territories where they do not have tofear any sanctions because there is no functioning state to assume charge ofsuch sanctions or because the state in question is too weak to impose suchsanctions.

This type of war does not provide for anywarning time. It challenges not only the external security of the nation statesand international community, but also their internal safety.


Unconventional waris also known as mini war. Because nowadays weapons are easy to access, andmini wars can be triggered without any warnings Some countries do not care muchabout weapon threats but are busy hiring penologists. These people don't careabout and ... may become terrorists. Word count:48)

1.5     Columbus

When Christopher Columbus arrived atHispaniola during his first transatlantic voyage in the year A.D. 1492, theisland had already been selected by Native Americans for about 5,000 years. Theoccupants in Columbus's time were a group of Arawak Indians called Tainos wholived by farming, were organized into five chiefdoms, and numbered around halfa million (the estimates range from 100,000 to 2000,000). Columbus initiallyfound them peaceful and friendly, until he and his Spaniards began mistreatingthem.

Unfortunately for the Tainos, they had gold,which the Spanish coveted but didn't want to go to the work of miningthemselves. Hence the conquerors divided up the island and its Indianpopulation among individual Spaniards, who put the Indians to work as virtualSlaves, accidentally infected them with Eurasian diseases, and murdered them.By the year 1519, 27 years after Columbus's arrival, that original populationof half a million had been reduced to about 11,000, most of whom died that yearof smallpox to bring the population down to 3,000.


When Columbusarrived at Hispaniola, it was occupied by Tainos, and Columbus and hisSpaniards began to divide up the island and put the Indians to work as virtualslaves since they do not want to go to the work of mining of the goldthemselves, but Indian population died out within a few decades due to diseasesand small pox, which forced the Spaniards to look elsewhere fro slavelaborers.(Word count: 71)

1.6     Language Decay

Let us begin byasking why the conviction that our language is decaying is so much morewidespread than the belief that it is progressing. In an intellectual climatewhere the notion of the survival of the fittest is at least as strong as thebelief in inevitable decay, it is strange that so many people are convinced ofthe decline in the quality of English, a language which is now spoken by anestimated half billion people – a possible hundredfold increase in the numberof speakers during the past millennium.

One’s firstreaction is to wonder whether the members of the anti-slovenliness brigade, aswe may call them, are subconsciously reacting to the fast-moving world we livein, and consequently resenting change in any area of life. To some extent, thisis likely to be true. A feeling that ‘fings ain’t wot they used to be and anattempt to preserve life unchanged seem to be natural reactions to insecurity,symptoms of growing old. Every generation inevitably believes that the clothes,manners and speech of the following one have deteriorated. We would, therefore,expect to find a respect for conservative language in every century and everyculture and, in literate societies, a reverence for the language of the ‘bestauthors’ of the past.


Inan intellectual climate where the notion of the survival of the fittest is atleast as strong as the belief in inevitable decay, every generation inevitablybelieves that the clothes, manners and speech of the following one havedeteriorated and an attempt to preserve life unchanged seem to be naturalreactions, therefore, we would therefore expect to find a respect forconservative language in every century and every culture.(Word count:70)

1.1     Grass and cow

The co-evolutionary relationship between cowsand grass is one of nature's under-appreciated wonders it also happens to bethe key to understanding just about everything about modern meat.

For the grasses, which have evolved towithstand the grazing of ruminants, the cow maintains and expands their habitatby preventing trees and shrubs from gaining a foothold and hogging the sunlightthe animal also spreads grass seed, plants it with his hooves, and thenfertilizes it with his manure.

In exchange for these services, the grassesoffer ruminants a plentiful and exclusive supply of lunch. For cows (likesheep, bison, and other ruminants) have evolved the special ability to convertgrass which single-stomached creatures like us can't digest into high-qualityprotein. They can do this because they possess what is surely the most highlyevolved digestive organ in nature the rumen. About the size of a medicine ball,the organ is essentially a fortyfive- gallon fermentation tank in which aresident population of bacteria dines on grass.

To summarize it, The co-evolutionaryrelationship means cows can spread seed and fertilize grass, in exchange, thegrass offer exclusive supply of lunch for cows, and the progression of rumenenables cows to convert grass.


Cows and grasses form mutually beneficialrelationships: cows can only survive by eating grass, whereas this process canhelp the grass to expand, spread and fertilize its seeds and the transformationfrom grass to the protein inside a cow’s body is highly dependent upon rumenwhich is huge in both size and its capacity.

1.2     Technology prediction IBM

As far asprediction is concerned, remember that the chairman of IBM predicted in thefifties that the world would need a maximum of around half a dozen computers,that the British Department for Education seemed to think in the

eighties that wewould all need to be able to code in BASIC and that in the nineties Microsoftfailed to foresee the rapid growth of the Internet.

Who could havepredicted that one major effect of the automobile would be to bankrupt smallshops across the nation? Could the early developers of the telephone haveforeseen its development as a medium for person-to-person communication, ratherthan as a form of the broadcasting medium? We all, including the 'experts',seem to be peculiarly inept at predicting the likely development of ourtechnologies, even as far as the next year. We can, of course, try toextrapolate from the experience of previous technologies, as I do below bycomparing the technology of the Internet with the development of otherinformation and communication technologies and by examining the earlierdevelopment of radio and print.

But how justified Imight be in doing so remains an open question. You might conceivably find thehistory of the British and French videotext systems, Prestel and Minitel,instructive. However, I am not entirely convinced that they are very relevant,nor do I know where you can find information about them online, so, rather thantake up space here, I've briefly described them in a separate article.


We all, includingthe “experts”, seem to be peculiarly inept at predicting the likely developmentof our technologies given facts that IBM chairman, the British Department forEducation and Microsoft failed to foresee future trends whereas developers ofautomobile and telephone failed to predict the development, but we canextrapolate from experience of previous technologies even though how justifiedwe might be in doing so remains an open question. (70 words)

1.3     Tree ring

Here's how tree-ring dating, known toscientists as dendrochronology works. If you cut a tree down today, it'sstraightforward to count the rings inwards, starting from the trees outside(corresponding to this years growth ring), and thereby to state that the 177thring from the outermost one towards the center was laid down in the year 2005minus 177, or 1828. But its less straightforward to attach a date to aparticular ring in an ancient Anasazi wooden beam, because at first, you don'tknow in what year the beam was cut. However, the widths of tree growth ringsvary from year to year, depending on the rain or drought conditions in eachyear.

Hence the sequence of the rings in a treecross-section is like a message in Morse code formerly used for sendingtelegraph messages dot-dot-dash-dot-dash in the Morse code,wide-wide-narrow-wide-narrow in the tree ring sequence. Actually, the tree ringsequence is even more diagnostic and richer in information than the Morse code,because trees actually contain rings spanning many different widths, ratherthan the Morse code choice between dot and dash.

Tree-ring specialists (known asdendrochronologists) proceed by noting the sequence of wider and narrower ringsin a tree cut down in a known recent year, and also noting the sequences inbeams from trees cut down at various times in the past. They then match up andalign the tree ring sequences with the same diagnostic wide, narrow patternsfrom different beams.

In that way, dendrochronologists haveconstructed tree-ring records extending back for thousands of years in someparts of the world. Each record is valid for a geographic area whose extentdepends on local weather patterns because weather and hence tree growthpatterns vary with location. For instance, the basic tree-ring chronology ofthe American Southwest applies (with some variation) to the area from NorthernMexico to Wyoming.


The study of tree rings, which is calleddendrochronology, can be used to measure the year when the tree was firstlyplanted accurately, but unlike Morse code which can deliver telegraph messageefficiently, the information indicated by tree rings is far richer and thereforeprovides more precise and detailed account of the rain or drought conditions ina particular year. (Word count:60)

1.4     US and Indian engineers

Consider the current situation like theircounterparts in the United States, engineers, and technicians in India have thecapacity to provide both computer programming and innovative new technologies.Indian programmers and high-tech engineers earn one-quarter of what theircounterparts earn in the United States, Consequently, India is able to do bothjobs at a lower dollar cost than the United States India has an absoluteadvantage in both. In other words, it can produce a unit of programming forfewer dollars than the United States, and it can also produce a unit oftechnology innovation for fewer dollars. Does that mean that the United Stateswill lose not only programming jobs but innovative technology job, too? Doesthat mean that our standard of living will fall if the United States and Indiaengage in the international trade?

David Ricardo would have answered no to bothquestions- as we do today. While India may have an absolute advantage in bothactivities, that fact is irrelevant in determining what India or the UnitedStates will produce. India has a comparative advantage in doing programming inpart because of such activity requires little physical capital. The flip sideis that the United States has a comparative advantage in technology innovationpartly because it is relatively easy to obtain capital in this country toundertake such long-run projects. The result is that Indian programmers will domore and more of what U.S. programmers have been doing in the past. Incontrast, American firms will shift to more and more innovation. The UnitedStates will specialize in technology innovation India will specialize inprogramming. The business managers in each country will opt to specialize inactivities in which they have a comparative advantage. As in the past, The U.S.economy will continue to concentrate on what is called the best activities.


With equally capabilityin programming and innovation as well as three quarter fewer charges, Indiancomputer technicians seem to gain absolute competitive advantage comparing withAmerican peers, but the U.S. is neither losing jobs nor degrading its livingstandard because the comparable superiority in India only correlates withphysical capital, and both countries will specialize in separate realm whichthey are expert in.(Word count:63)

1.5     US and Indian engineers

Consider the current situation like theircounterparts in the United States, engineers, and technicians in India have thecapacity to provide both computer programming and innovative new technologies.Indian programmers and high-tech engineers earn one-quarter of what theircounterparts earn in the United States, Consequently, India is able to do bothjobs at a lower dollar cost than the United States India has an absoluteadvantage in both. In other words, it can produce a unit of programming forfewer dollars than the United States, and it can also produce a unit oftechnology innovation for fewer dollars. Does that mean that the United Stateswill lose not only programming jobs but innovative technology job, too? Doesthat mean that our standard of living will fall if the United States and Indiaengage in the international trade?

David Ricardo would have answered no to bothquestions- as we do today. While India may have an absolute advantage in bothactivities, that fact is irrelevant in determining what India or the UnitedStates will produce. India has a comparative advantage in doing programming inpart because of such activity requires little physical capital. The flip sideis that the United States has a comparative advantage in technology innovationpartly because it is relatively easy to obtain capital in this country toundertake such long-run projects. The result is that Indian programmers will domore and more of what U.S. programmers have been doing in the past. Incontrast, American firms will shift to more and more innovation. The UnitedStates will specialize in technology innovation India will specialize inprogramming. The business managers in each country will opt to specialize inactivities in which they have a comparative advantage. As in the past, The U.S.economy will continue to concentrate on what is called the best activities.


With equally capability in programming andinnovation as well as three quarter fewer charges, Indian computer techniciansseem to gain absolute competitive advantage comparing with American peers, butthe U.S. is neither losing jobs nor degrading its living standard because thecomparable superiority in India only correlates with physical capital, and bothcountries will specialize in separate realm which they are expert in.(Wordcount:63)

1.6     Australian education

When Australians engage in debate abouteducational quality or equity, they often seem to accept that a country cannotachieve both at the same time.

Curriculum reforms intended to improve equityoften fail to do so because they increase breadth or differentiation inofferings in a way that increases differences in quality. Further, thesedifferences in quality often reflect differences in students social backgroundsbecause the new offerings are typically taken up by relatively disadvantagedstudents who are not served well them. Evidence from New South Wales will beused to illustrate this point.

The need to improve the quality of educationis well accepted across OECD and other countries as they seek to strengthentheir human capital to underpin their modern, knowledge economies. Improvedequity is also important for this purpose since the demand for high-levelskills is widespread and the opportunities for the low skilled are diminishing.

Improved equity in education is also importantfor social cohesion. There are countries in which the education system seemsprimarily to reproduce existing social arrangements, conferring privilege whereit already exists and denying it where it does not. Even in countries where thediagnosis might be less extreme, the capacity of schooling to build socialcohesion is often diminished by the way in which schools separate individualsand groups.


In debate about educational quality or equity,Australia cannot achieve both at the same time, as evidence from New SouthWales illustrates curriculum reforms for equity increase breadth ordifferentiation in offerings in a way that increases differences in quality,and simultaneously, for the purpose of strengthening human capital to underpinmodern, knowledge economies, OECD and other countries accept the need forimproved quality and improved equity that is important for social cohesion.(Word count:74)

1.7     Nobel peace prize

This year's Nobel Peace Prize justly rewardsthe thousands of scientists of the United Nations Climate Change Panel theIPCC. These scientists are engaged in excellent, painstaking work thatestablishes exactly what the world should expect from climate change.

The other award winner, former US VicePresident Al Gore, has spent much more time telling us what to fear. While theIPCC's estimates and conclusions are grounded in careful study, Gore doesn'tseem to be similarly restrained.

Gore told the world in his AcademyAward-winning movie recently labeled "one-sided" and containingscientific errors by a British judge to expect 20-foot sea-level rises overthis century. He ignores the findings of his Nobel co-winners, the IPCC, whoconclude that sea levels will rise between only a half foot and two feet overthis century, with their best expectation being about one foot. That's similarto what the world experienced over the past 150 years.

Likewise, Gore agonizes over the acceleratedmelting of ice in Greenland and what it means for the planet but overlooks theIPCC's conclusion that, if sustained, the current rate of melting would addjust three inches to the sea level rise by the end of the century.

Gore also takes no notice of research showingthat Greenlands temperatures were higher in 1941 than they are today. Gore alsofrets about the future of polar bears. He claims they are drowning as their icyhabitat disappears. However, the only scientific study showing any such thingindicates that four polar bears drowned because of a storm.

The politician turned movie maker loses sleepover a predicted rise in heat-related deaths. There's another side of the storythat's inconvenient to mention rising temperatures will reduce the number ofcold spells, which are a much bigger killer than heat. The best study showsthat by 2050, heat will claim 400,000 more lives, but 1.8 million fewer willdie because of cold. Indeed, according to the first complete survey of theeconomic effects of climate change on the world, global warming will actuallysave lives.


This year’s Nobel Peace Prize rewards the IPCCscientists and Al Gore, who are engaged in excellent work in climate change,however, Gore expects the sea level to rise 20 foot over this century andworries about the future of polar bears, while the IPCC estimated only a halffoot and two feet increase and study shows that the global warming willactually save lives because few lives will die because of cold.

1.8     Children watching TV

Why and to whatextent should parents control their children's TV watching? There is certainlynothing inherently wrong with TV. The problem is how much television a childwatches and what effect it has on his life. Research has

shown that as theamount of time spent watching TV goes up, the amount of time devoted not onlyto homework and study but other important aspects of life such as social developmentand physical activities decreases.

Television is boundto have its tremendous impact on a child, both in terms of how many hours aweek he watches TV and of what he sees. When a parent is concerned about theeffects of television, he should consider a number of things what TV offers thechild in terms of information and knowledge, how many hours a week a youngsterhis age should watch television, the impact of violence and sex, and theinfluence of commercials.

What about thefamily as a whole? Is the TV set a central piece of furniture in your home! Isit picked on the moment someone enters the empty house? Is it on during thedaytime? Is it part of the background noise of your family life? Do youdemonstrate by your own viewing that television should be watched selectively?


The research showsthat for children, the amount of time of television viewing and the amountspent on other social activities are negatively correlated and that the impactof television on children can only be discussed after considering a wide rangeof issues, whereas television indeed exerts a profound influence on the familyas a whole.

1.9     Napping

Could midday napping save your life?

If the experience of Greek men is any guide,the answer just may be yes.

In a study released yesterday, researchers atthe Harvard School of Public Health and in Athens reported that Greeks who tookregular 30-minute siestas were 37 percent less likely to die of heart diseaseover a six-year period than those who never napped. The scientists tracked morethan 23,000 adults, finding that the benefits of napping were most pronouncedfor workers.

Researchers have long recognized thatMediterranean adults die of heart disease at a rate lower than Americans andNorthern Europeans. Diets rich in olive oil and other heart-healthy foods havereceived some of the credit, but scientists have been intrigued by thepotential role of napping.

The study, published in the Archives ofInternal Medicine, concluded that napping was more likely than diet or physicalactivity to lower the incidence of heart attacks and other life-ending heartailments.

Still, the authors cautioned that furtherresearch is needed to confirm their findings.


According to a Harvard research, Siestasignificantly reduces the possibility of coronary mortality, though theseresults require verification and exploration because other factors may alsoinfluence the accuracy of consequence, and naps appeared to offer the mostprotection to workers who have a significantly lower risk.

1.10  Wine industry in US

In 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to theUnited States Constitution was enacted, creating yet another serious setback tothe American wine industry. The National Prohibition Act, also known as theVolstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale, transportation, importation,exportation, delivery, or possession of intoxicating liquors for beveragepurposes, and nearly destroyed what had become a thriving national industry. In1920 there were more than seven hundred wineries in California. By the end ofProhibition, there were 160.

If Prohibition had lasted only four or fiveyears, its impact on the wine industry might have been negligible. But itcontinued for thirteen years, during which time grapes went undergroundliterally and figuratively, becoming an important commodity in the criminaleconomy. The fruit juice, which was sometimes made into concentrate, was idealfor making wine. Some of this yield found its way to bootleggers throughoutAmerica who did just that. But not for long, because the government stepped inand banned the sale of grape juice, preventing illegal wine production.Vineyards stopped being planted, and the American wine industry ground to ahalt.


The 1920 Volstead Act prohibited themanufacture, sale, transportation, importation, exportation, delivery, orpossession of intoxicating liquors for beverage purpose, loopholes of whichallowed sacramental wine, medicinal wines and medicinal wine tonics sold uponprescription, and importantly, allowed anyone to produce two hundred gallonsyearly of fruit juice or cider, but grape concentrate bootleggers would nolonger thrive because American government prevented illegal wine production andvineyards planting and halted wine industry. (73 words)

1.11  Skip Breakfast

Skipping breakfast seems a simple way oflosing weight or saving time while getting the children ready for school orrushing off to work. But it can also be a sign of an unhealthy lifestyle withpotentially dangerous consequences, including a higher risk of premature death.According to a study, adults and teenagers who miss the first meal of the dayare less likely to look after their health. They tend to smoke more, drink morealcohol and take less exercise than those who do eat. Those who skip food inthe morning are also more likely to be fatter and less well-educated, meaningthey find it harder to get a job.

Researcher Dr. Anna Keski-Rahkonen said:Smoking, infrequent exercise, a low level of education, frequent alcohol useand a high body mass index were all associated with skipping breakfast inadults and adolescents. Our findings suggest this association exists throughoutadulthood. Individuals who skip breakfast may care less about their health thanthose who eat breakfast.

Previously, experts assumed that missingbreakfast often called the most important meal of the day was simply the markerof a hectic life or a way to try to lose weight. But Dr. Keski-Rahkonen, wholed the study at Helsinki University, said the results revealed starting theday without food suggests an unhealthy lifestyle.


Although skipping breakfast seems a simple wayof losing weight and was the marker of a hectic life, a study has revealed thatmore smoking and drinking, less exercise, being fatter and less educated aswell as higher body mass index are all

associated to the adults who miss ‘the mostimportant meal of the day’, and this association exists during adulthood. (Wordcount:62 )

1.12  Greenhouse gas

When an individual drives a car, heats a houseor uses an aerosol hairspray, greenhouse gases are produced. In economic terms,this creates a classic negative externality. Most of the cost is borne byindividuals other than the one

making the decision about how many miles todrive or how much hairspray to use. Because the driver or sprayer enjoys allthe benefits of the activities but suffers only part of the cost, thatindividual engages in more than the economically efficient amount of theactivity. In this sense, the problem of greenhouse gases parallels the problemthat occurs when someone smokes a cigarette in an enclosed space or litters thecountryside with fast-food wrappers. If we are to get individuals to reduceproduction of greenhouse gases to the efficient rate, we must somehow inducethem to act as though they bear all the costs of their actions. The two mostwidely accepted means of doing this are government regulation and taxation,both of which have been proposed to deal with greenhouse gases.


Driving a motorizedvehicle, which follows the principle of negative externality, proves to bebeneficial only to drivers themselves but causes severe damage to other relatedparties including the environment and other people, and such a practice canonly be stopped by making drivers bear more costs, including imposing more taxeson them or implementing more stringent rules and regulations. (Word count:60)

1.13  Mammals

Mammals can be one of the hardest-hit groupsby habitat loss, and a lot of research has been carried out to find the bestways to conserve mammal diversity.

Much of this research has focussed on verylarge-scale changes in land use and the impacts this will have on overallmammal diversity. However, many important decisions about land use are made atmuch more local scales, for example at the level of individual landowners.

Now, in a detailed study led by ImperialCollege London that looked at mammal diversity across different small-scalelandscapes in Borneo, researchers have identified previously logged forests asan overlooked source of refuge for mammals.

These ‘selectively logged’ forests, where onlycertain tree species are removed, are often considered to be degraded and arefrequently cleared to make way for plantations. The new results, published inthe journal Ecological Applications, suggest they should be better protected.

The team recorded mammals usingtrap-and-release techniques and motion-sensing cameras over three years,creating an unprecedented 20,000 records of species in three land-use types:old-growth forest, logged forest and oil palm plantation. This is one of themost intensive studies of rainforest mammal diversity ever undertaken.

To their surprise, they found that mammaldiversity for large mammals, like the clouded leopard and civets, was similarfor both old-growth forests and logged forests. For small mammals, such assquirrels and rodents, the diversity was actually higher in logged forests.


Researches have been carried out to find waysto conserve mammal diversity, these researches focused on largescale, whiledecisions about land use are made at local scales, now, a study showed that‘selectively logged’ forests could be a source of refuge for mammals and shouldbe protected, moreover, diversity for large mammals was similar for old-growthforests and logged forest, as for small mammals, diversity was higher in loggedforests. Wordcount:70

1.14  Geothermal energy

What is the solution for nations withincreasing energy demands, hindered by frequent power cuts and an inability tocompete in the international oil market For East Africa at least, experts thinkgeothermal energy is the answer. More promising still, the Kenyan governmentand international investors seem to be listening. This is just in timeaccording to many, as claims of an acute energy crisis are afoot due to highoil prices, population spikes, and droughts.

geothermal energy works by pumping water intobedrock, where it is heated and returns to the surface as steam which is useddirectly as a heat source or to drive electricity production. Source EnergyInformation Administration, geothermal Energy in the Western United States andHawaii.

Currently, over 60 of Kenya's power comes fromhydroelectric sources, but these are proving increasingly unreliable as theissue of seasonal variation is intensified by erratic rain patterns.Alternative energy sources are needed and the leading energy supplier in Kenya,Kenya Electricity Generating Company KenGen, hopes to expand its geothermalenergy supply from 13 to 25 of its total usage by 2020. The potential ofgeothermal energy in the region was first realized internationally by theUnited Nations Development Program when geologists observed thermal anomaliesbelow the East African Rift system. Locals have been utilizing this resourcefor centuries using steam vents to create the perfect humidity for greenhouses,or simply to enjoy a swim in the many natural hot lakes.

Along the 6000 km of the rift from the Red Seato Mozambique, geochemical, geophysical and heat flow measurements were made toidentify areas suitable for geothermal wells. One area lies next to the extinctOlkaria volcano, within the Hells Gate National Park, and sits over some of thethinnest continental crust on Earth. This is a result of the thinning of thecrust by tectonic stretching, causing hotter material below the Earths surfaceto rise, resulting in higher temperatures. This thin crust was ideal for thedrilling of geothermal wells, reaching depths of around 3000 meters, wheretemperatures get up to 342°C, far higher than the usual temperature of 90°C atthis depth. Water in the surrounding rocks is converted to steam by the heat.The steam can be used to drive turbines and produce electricity.


Due to theinstability of using hydroelectric power, Kenya government plans to exploitgeothermal energy to supply 25% of total electricity generated by 2020, and twoideal regions have already been identified with ideal geological conditions andsuitable temperature. (Word count:39)

PART 5Fill In The Blank-R & RW


1.1     Teenage Daughter

Your teenage daughtergets top marks in school, captains the debate team, and volunteers at a shelterfor homeless people. But while driving the family car, her text-messages herbest friend and rear-ends another vehicle. How can teens be so clever,accomplished, and responsible and reckless at the same time? Easily, accordingto two physicians at Children's Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School(HMS) who have been exploringthe unique structure and chemistry of the adolescent brain. The teenage brainis not just an adult brain with fewer miles on it, says Frances E. Jensen, aprofessor of neurology. Its a paradoxical time of development. These are people with very sharp brains,but they're not quite sure what to do with them. In animals, the movement iscoordinated by a cluster of neurons in the spinal cord called the centralpattern generator (CPG). This produces signals that drive muscles to contract rhythmically ina way that produces running or walking, depending on the pattern of pulses. Asimple signal from the brain instructs the CPG to switch between different modes, such as going froma standstill to walking.

1.2     Pinker (RW)

In a sequence ofbestsellers, including The Language Instinct and How the Mind Works, Pinker hasargued the swathes of our mental, social and emotional lives may have originated asevolutionary adaptions, well suited to the lives our ancestors eked out on thePleistocene savannah. Sometimes it seems as if nothing is immune from beingexplained this way. Road rage, adultery, marriage, altruism, our tendency toreward senior executives with corner offices on the top floor, and the smallernumber of women who become mechanical engineers all may have their roots in naturalselection, Pinker claims. The controversial implications are obvious: that menand women might differin their inborn abilities at performing certain tasks, for example, or thatparenting may have littleinfluence on personality.

1.3     Video-conferencing technology (RW)

Never has the carbonfootprint of multi-national corporations been under such intense scrutiny.Inter-city train journeys and long-haul flights to conduct face-to-face business meetingscontribute significantly to greenhouse gases and the resulting strain on theenvironment.

The Anglo-US companyTeliris has introduced a new video-conferencing technology and partnered withthe Carbon Neutral Company, enabling corporate outfits to become moreenvironmentally responsible. The innovation allows simulated face-to-facemeetings to be held across continents without the time pressure or environmental burden ofinternational travel.

Previous designs haveenabled video-conferencing on a point-to-point, dual-location basis. The firm'sVirtuaLive technology, however, can bring people together from up to fiveseparate locations anywhere in the world – with unrivaled transmission quality.

1.4     Australia Higher Education Funding (RW)

Financing of Australianhigher education has undergone dramatic change since the early 1970s. Althoughthe Australian Government provided regular funding for universities from thelate 1950s, in 1974, it assumedfull responsibility for funding higher education - abolishing tuition fees withthe intention of making university accepted to all Australians who had theability and who wished to participate in higher education.

Since the late 1980s,there has been a move towards greater private contributions, particularly studentsfees. In 1989, the Australian Government introduced the Higher Education ContributionScheme (HECS) which included a loans scheme to help students finance theircontributions. This enabled universities to remain accessible to students by delaying theirpayments until they could afford to pay off their loans. In 2002, theAustralian Government introduced a scheme similar to HECS for postgraduatestudents - the Postgraduate Education Loan Scheme (PELS).

Funding for highereducation comes from various sources. This article examines the three mainsources – Australian Government funding, students fees and charges, and HECS.While the proportion of total revenue raised through HECS is relatively small, HECS paymentsare a significant component of students' university costs, with many studentscarrying a HECS debt for several years after leaving university. This articlealso focuses on characteristics of university

students based on theirHECS liability status, and the level of accumulated HECS debt.

1.5     Impressionist (RW)

Impressionism was anineteenth-century art movement that began as a loose association ofParis-based artists who started publicly exhibiting their art in the 1860s. Characteristics ofImpressionist painting include visible brush strokes, light colors, opencomposition, emphasison light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of thepassage of time), ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles. The nameof the movement is derivedfrom Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise (Impression, Soleil Levant). CriticLouis Leroy inadvertently coined the term in a satiric review published in LeCharivari.

Radicals in their time,early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. They began by givingcolors, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painters suchas Eugene Delacroix. They also took the act of painting out of the studio andinto the world. Previously, not only still-lives and portraits, but alsolandscapes had been painted indoors, but the Impressionists found that theycould capture the momentaryand transient effects of sunlight by painting air (in plain air).

1.6     Sportswomen

Sportswomen's recordsare important and need to be preserved. And if the paper records don't exist, we need to get outand start interviewing people, not to put too fine a point on it, while we still have a chance.After all, if the records aren't kept in some form or another, then the storiesare lost too.

1.7     Poverty (RW)

Measuring poverty on aglobal scale requiresestablishing a uniform poverty level across extremely divergent economies,which can result in only rough comparisons. The World Bank has defined theinternational poverty line as U.S. $1 and $2 per day in 1993 Purchasing PowerParity (PPP), which adjusts for differences in the prices of goods and services betweencountries. The $1 per day level is generally used for the least developedcountries, primarily African the $2-per-day level is used for middle-income economiessuch as those of East Asia and Latin America.

1.8     Ocean floor (RW)

The ocean floor is hometo many unique communities of plants and animals. Most of these marineecosystems are near the water surface, such as the Great Barrier Reef,12,000-km-long coral formationoff the northeastern coast of Australia. Coral reefs, like nearly all-complexliving communities, depend on solar energy for growth (photosynthesis). Thesun's energy, however, penetrates at most only about 300 m below the surface ofthe water. The relatively shallow penetration of solar energy and the sinkingof cold, subpolar water combine to make most of the deep ocean floor a frigid environment withfew life forms.

In 1977, scientistsdiscovered hot spring at a depth of 2.5 km, on the Galapagos Rift (spreadingridge) off the coast of Ecuador. This exciting discovery was not really a surprise. Since the early1970s, scientists had predicted that hot springs (geothermal vents) should befound at the active spreading centers along the mid-oceanic ridges, where magma,at temperatures over 1,000 C, presumably was being erupted to form a newoceanic crust. More exciting, because it was totally unexpected, was the discovery of abundantand unusual sea life-giant tube worms, huge clams, and mussels -- that thrived around the hotsprings.

1.9     Locust

Fancy a locust forlunch? Probably not, if you live in the west, but elsewhere it’s a differentstory. Edible insects – termites, stick insects, dragonflies, grasshoppers andgiant water bugs – are on the menu for an estimated 80 percent of the world’s population.

More than 1000 speciesof insects are served up around the world. For example, “Kungu cakes” – madefrom midges – are a delicacyin parts of Africa. Mexico is an insect-eating – or entomophilous-hotspot,where more than 200 insect species are consumed. Demand is so high that 40species are now under threat, including white agave worms. These caterpillarsof the tequila giant-skipper butterfly fetch around $250 a kilogram.

Eating insects make nutritional sense. Somecontain more protein than meat or fish. The female gypsy moth, for instance, isabout 80 percent protein. Insects can be a good source of vitamins and minerals too: a type ofcaterpillar (Usta Terpsichore) eaten in Angola is rich in iron, zinc, andthiamine. What do they taste like? Ants have a lemon tang, apparently, whereasgiant water bugs taste of mint and fire ant pupae of watermelon. You haveprobably, inadvertently, already tasted some of these things, as insects areoften accidental tourists in other types of food. The

US Food and DrugAdministration even issues guidelines for the number of insect parts allowed incertain foods. For example, it is acceptable for 225 grams of macaroni to contain up to 225 insectfragments.

1.10  Advertising a global perspective-Burger King(RW)

Drive down any highway,and you’ll see a proliferation of chain restaurants-most likely, if you travellong and far enough, you’ll see McDonald’s golden arches as well as signs forBurger King, Hardee’s and Wendy’s, the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name,though. Burger King has fallen short of claiming the burger crown, unable to surpassmarket leader MacDonald's No.1 sales status. Always the bridesmaid and neverthe bride, Burger King remains No.2.

Worse yet, Burger Kinghas experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with itsoverall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three contenders haveincreased. The decline has been attributed to inconsistent product quality and poor customerservice. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem,an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communications theory would suggestthat internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to berectified before a unified, long-term strategy can be put in place.

The importance of consistencyin brand image and messages, not at all levels of communication, has become abasic tenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer’sorder must communicate the same message a Burger King’s famous tagline, “haveit your way” or the customer will just buzz up the highway to a chainrestaurant that seems more consistent and, therefore, more reliable.

1.11  Kashmiri

Two decades ago, Kashmiri houseboat-owners rubbed their hands everyspring at the prospectof the annual influx of tourists.From May to October, the hyacinth-choked waters of Dal Lake saw flotillas of vividlypainted Shikaras carrying Indian families. Then, in 1989, everything changed.Hindus and countless Kashmiri business people bolted, at least 35,000 peoplewere killed in a decade, the lake stagnated, and the houseboats rotted. Anyforeigners venturing there risked their lives, proved in 1995 when five young Europeanswere kidnapped and murdered.

1.12  Symphony

Away from the rumble ofShanghai's highways and cacophony of the shopping districts, stroll down sidestreets filled with rows of tall brick houses. In the early evening or on a weekendmorning, you'll hear the soundof classical music driftingfrom a piano, played by a 10-year old or a grandmother in her seventies. Wanderdown another alley toward drab skyscraper, and you'll hear Beethoven or Mozart flowing from aviolin, or perhaps a cello, accordion or flute.

In China, classicalmusic is booming asmightily as the 1812 Overture. It's fortissimo in Shanghai, home to China's oldestorchestra, forte in Beijing and other lively cities, and on a crescendo infarther-flung areas. Commanding 100- 200 ($12.50- $25) per hour, private musicteachers in Shanghai can readily earn more than five times the average per capitamonthly income.

1.13  Jean Piaget (RW)

Jean Piaget, thepioneering Swiss philosopher, and psychologist spent much of his professionallife listening to children, watching children and poring over reports of researchers around theworld who were doing the same. He found, to put most succinctly, that children don’t think likegrownups. After thousands of interactions with young people often barely oldenough to talk, Piaget began to suspect that behind their cute and seemingly illogicalutterances were thought processes that had their own kind of order and theirown special logic. Einstein called it a discovery “so simple that only a geniuscould have thought of it.”

Piaget’s insight openeda new window into the inner workings of the mind. By the end of a wide-rangingand remarkably prolificresearch career that spanned nearly 75 years, from his first scientificpublication at age 10 to work still in progress when he died at 84, Piaget haddeveloped several new fields of science: developmental psychology, cognitivetheory and what came to be called genetic epistemology. Although not aneducational reformer, he championeda way of thinking about children that provided the foundation for today'seducation-reform movements.It was a shift comparable to the displacement of stories of "noblesavages" and "cannibals" by modern anthropology. One might saythat Piaget was the first to take children's thinking seriously.

1.14  The writing on the wall

The inevitableconsequences includerampant corruption, an absence of globally competitive Chinese companies, chronic waste ofresources, rampant environmental degradation, and soaring inequality. Above all, the monopoly overpower of an ideologically bankrupt communist party is inconsistent with the pluralism of opinion,security of property and vibrant competition on which a dynamic economydepends. As a result, Chinese development remains parasitic on know-how andinstitution developed elsewhere

1.15        Enigma

And if the voice of ananimal is not heard as message but as art, interesting things start to happen:Nature is no longer an alien enigma,but instead something immediately beautiful, an exuberantopus with space for us to join in. Bird melodieshave always been called songs for a reason.

1.16  Oxford medical school (RW)

When I enrolled in mymaster's course at Oxford last year, I had come straight from medical schoolwith the decision to leave clinical science for good. Thinking back, I realizethat I didn't put very much weighton this decision at the time. But today, I more clearly understand the consequences of leavingmy original profession. When I meet old

friends who are nowphysicians and surgeons, I sense how our views on medical problems have diverged. They scrutinizethe effects of disease and try to eliminate or alleviate them; I try tounderstand how they come about in the first place. I feel happier working onthis side of the problem, although I do occasionally miss clinical work andseeing patients.

However, when I thinkabout the rate at which my medical skills and knowledge have dissipated, the yearsspent reading weighty medical textbooks, the hours spent at the bedside, Isometimes wonder if these years were partly a waste of time now that I am pursuing a researchcareer.

Nonetheless, I know thevalue of my medical education. It is easy to forget the importance of thebiosciences when working with model organisms in basic research that seem tohave nothing to do with a sick child or a suffering elderly person. Yet, Istill have vivid memories of the cruel kaleidoscope of severe diseases and ofhow they can strikea human being. I hope to retain these memories as a guide in my currentoccupation.

1.17  E-learning

Remember whenuniversities were bursting at the seams with students sitting in the aisles,balancing books on their knees?

No more, it seems.E-learning is as likely to stand for empty lecture theatres as for the internetrevolution, whichhas greatly increased the volumeand range of course materials available online in the past five years.

The temptation now is tosimply think, 'Everything will be online so I don't need to go to class',"said Dr Kerri-Lee Krause, of the Centre for the Study of Higher Education atthe University of Melbourne.

The nation'suniversities are in the process of opening the doors for the new academic yearand, while classes are generally well attended for the early weeks, it often does notlast.

"There is concernat the university level about student attendance dropping and why students are notcoming to lectures." Dr Krause said.

But lecturers' pride -and fiercecompetition among universities for students - mean few are willing toacknowledgepublicly how poorly attended many classes are.

1.18  Space work

The space work for anastronaut can be inside or outside,inside they can monitor machines, and the work is carried out alongside the craft. They also need tomake sure the Space Travel. Outside the craft, they can see how the seeds reactin the space. Some seeds company send seeds to them to investigate how seeds change theirbiological character. When outside the craft, they can set up experiments orclean up the space rubbish.

1.19  Ministerial staffing system

The contemporaryministerial staffing system is large, active and partisan - far larger andfurther evolved than any West minster equivalent. Ministers' demands for helpto cope with the pressures of an increasingly competitive and professionalizedpolitical environment have been key drivers of the staffing system'sdevelopment. But there has not been commensurate growth in arrangements to supportand control it. The operatingframework for ministerial staff is fragmented and ad hoc.

1.20  Alaska's Aleutian Islands

Alaska's the AleutianIslands have long been accustomed to ship wrecks. They have been part of local consciousness since aJapanese whaling ship ran agroundnear the western end of the 1,100-mile (1,800-km) volcanic archipelago in 1780,inadvertently naming what is now Rat Island when the ship's infestation scurried ashore and madeitself at home. Since then, there have been at least 190 shipwrecks in theislands

1.21  Parliament (RW)

No one in Parliamentwould know better than Peter Garrett what largesse copyright can confer so itmay seem right that he should announce a royalty for artists, amounting to 5percent of all sales after the original one, which can go on giving to theirfamilies for as much as 150 years. But that ignores the truth that copyrightlaw is a scandal, recently exacerbatedby the Free Trade Agreement with the US which required the extension ofcopyright to 70 years after death.

Is it scandalous thatreally valuable copyrights end up in the ownership of corporations (althoughAgatha Christie's no-doubt worthy great-grandchildren are still reaping the benefits ofWest End success for her whodunnits and members of the Garrick Club enjoy thecontinuing fruits of A.A. Milne's Christopher Robin books)? No. The scandals are that beenpeasants politicians have attempted to appear cultured by creating privateassets which depend on an act of Parliament for their existence and by givingaway much more in value than any public benefit could justify. In doing so, they have betrayedour trust.

1.22  People who visit health professionals

People who visit healthprofessionals tend to be older than the general population because illness increases withage. However, the proportionof the population who visited complementary health therapists was highestbetween the ages 25 and 64 years. The lower rates for people aged 65 years andover contrastedwith the rate of visits to other health professionals which increased steadilywith increasing age. The reasons for this difference might include lower levelsof acceptance ofcomplementary therapies by older people. Alternatively, older people may havedifferent treatment priorities than do younger people because their health onaverage is worse while their incomes are generally lower.

1.23  Personal life

In 2001 he received theSIUC Outstanding Scholar Award. In 2003 he received the Carski Award forDistinguished Undergraduate Teaching from the American Society forMicrobiology. Mikes research is focused on bacteria that inhabit extreme environments, and for the past 12 years, hehas studied the microbiology of permanently ice-covered lakes in the McMurdoDry Valleys, Antarctica. In addition to his research papers, he has edited amajor treatise on phototrophicbacteria and served for over a decade as chief editor of the journal Archives ofMicrobiology. He currently serves on the editorial board of EnvironmentalMicrobiology. Mikes nonscientific interests include forestry, reading, and caring for his dogs andhorses. He lives besidea peaceful and quiet lake with his wife, Nancy, five shelter dogs (Gaino ,Snuffy, Pepto, Peanut, and Merry), and four horses (Springer, Feivel, Gwen, andFestus).

PART 6 Write From Dictation


1.                 A celebrated theory is still thesource of great controversy. (1)

2.                 A good research assistant is notafraid to ask questions.(16)

3.                 Accounting students should have a goodunderstanding of profit and loss statements. ()

4.                 All of the assignments must besubmitted in person to the faculty office.14

5.                 Although sustainable development isnot easy, it is our responsibility.11

6.                 Animals raised in captivity behavedifferently than their wild counterparts. 23

7.                 Assignments should be submitted tothe department office before the deadline.25

8.                 Before submitting your dissertation,your adviser/advisor must approve your application. 29

9.                 Behind the crops, there is a flatcart drawn by mules. 31

10.             Behind the groups, there is a flatcart drawn by mules. 31

11.             Climate change is now an acceptablephenomenon among reputable scientists.39

12.             Clinical placement in nursingprepares students for professional practice. 40

13.             Control systems in manufacturingprovide a high level in accuracy. 45

14.             Everyone must evacuate the premisesduring the fire drill. 65

15.             Free campus tours run daily duringsummer for prospective students.70

16.             Good research paper deliverspractical benefits to real people.73

17.             Graduates of journalism can get jobsin the communications field. 76

18.             He was constantly looking for waysto bring industry and agriculture closely together. (新)

19.             I thought it was through (within)the small meeting room. 86

20.             It was hard to anticipate how allthe different characters would react. 104

21.             Let me know if anyone/anybodystruggles in the lab. 117

22.             Most of these features were part ofthe previous system.130

23.             Mutually exclusive events can bedescribed as either complementary or opposite. 137

24.             Native speakers are exempt from thelanguage tests in their own language. 138

25.             Observers waited nervously and withbated breath for the concert.143

26.             One of the election promises is todecrease the income tax.(新78

27.             Our professor is hosting thebusiness development conference. 148

28.             Participants initially select from arange of foundation subjects. 154

29.             Please click the logo above to enterthe site.(新)

30.             Radio is a popular form ofentertainment throughout the world.168

31.             Review all sources before drawingany conclusions.178

32.             Scientists are always asking thegovernment for more money.184

33.             Several candidates were graded asthe greatest scientists of all time.(新)

34.             She used to be the editor of thestudent newspaper.189

35.             Some people are motivated bycompetition, while others prefer collaboration.192

36.             Students are encouraged to monitortheir own attendance.(新63

37.             Students have the options to live incollege residences or apartments. 201

38.             Students were instructed to submittheir assignments by Friday.307

39.             Students’ concession cards can beobtained by completing an application form.196

40.             Supply and demand is one of the mostfundamental concepts in economics.52

41.             Teaching assistants will receive amonthly stipend for housing. 207

42.             That means that we have so manystruggles in the lab.(新18

43.             The ability to work with fellowstudents cannot be stressed enough.(新65

44.             The aerial photographs were promptlyregistered for thorough evaluation.19

45.             The application process may takelonger than expected.215

46.             The article refers(to)/reflects/verifies/features a number of interesting experiments. 218

47.             The artists tied to conservativepoliticians earned their own roles to the critics. (新相似62

48.             The business policy seminar includesan internship with a local firm.224

49.             The chemistry building is locatednear the entrance to the campus. 38相似)

50.             The city founders created a set ofrules that became laws.229

51.             The commissioner will portion thefunds among other authorities. 232

52.             The economy is now showing the/itsfirst sign/signs of recovery.(新20

53.             The first assignment is due on thefourteenth of September. 255

54.             The library holds substantialcollection of materials on economic history.270

55.             The massive accumulation of data wasconverted into a communicable argument. 272

56.             The nation achieved prosperity byopening its ports for trade.278

57.             The new medical students shouldattend the talk about optional courses. (新)

58.             The new paper challenged thepreviously accepted theories.353

59.             The placement test of/formathematics and statistics is offered every semester. 286

60.             The poster of this play is hung inthe large lecture theatre.(新3

61.             The qualification will be assessedby using criterion/criteria reference to approach. 290

62.             The railways make long-distancetravel possible for everyone.291

63.             The same issue featured bothexplanations of the problem.297

64.             The sociology department is highlyregarded worldwide.303

65.             The students were instructed tosubmit their assignments before Friday.307

66.             The summer course was cancelled dueto insufficient enrolment .(新69

67.             The synopsis contains the mostimportant information.70

68.             The teacher asked the group tocommence the task.309

69.             The theme of the instrumental workexhibited more of a demure compositional style.312

70.             The toughest part of postgraduateeducation is funding. 318

71.             The ways in which people communicateare constantly changing. 328

72.             There are opportunities to receivethe grants from most artistic fields. (新)

73.             There have been (too) many strugglesin the mathematics department. (新)

74.             There is a welcome party for all newstudents for each term.(新73

75.             They were struggling last year tomake their service pay. 345

76.             This course considerably emphasizeson the critical thinking skills. (新)

77.             This morning’s lecture on economicpolicy has been cancelled.256

78.             This problem is complex anddifficult to explain.(新)

79.             Those seeking for formal extensionshould contact their faculty for information. 356

80.             Those who seek for formal extensionshould contact their faculty for information. 356

81.             Traffic is the main cause of (air)pollution in many cities. 319

82.             Tribes vibe/worked with each otherto build up monolithic statues. 362

83.             Undergraduates may participate inspecific stages within the program .(364)

84.             Undergraduates pursue theirinterests in special/specific stages within the program .364

85.             University departments carefullymonitored/monitor articles and other publications by faculty.365

86.             We can’t consider any increase inour prices at this stage. 370

87.             We study science to understand andappreciate the world around us.373

88.             When workers ask for higher wages,companies often raise their prices.383

89.             While reconciliation is desirable, basicunderlying issues must first be addressed. 382

90.             You are required to complete theresearch paper by Monday.387

91.             You can contact all your tutors byemail. 397

92.             You will need to purchase anacademic gown before the commencement.394

93.             Your lowest quiz grade has beenomitted from the calculations.401