【易学PTE】真题高频 - 合集4.0 2018-10-23 to 11-05(更新2018-10-23)






PART 1Read Aloud

1.1     Blue

While blue isone of the most popular colors, it is one of the least appetizing. Blue food israre in nature. Food researchers say that when humans searched for food, they learnedto avoid toxic or spoiled objects, which were often blue, black or purple. Whenfood dyed blue is served to study subjects, they lose appetite.

1.2     Carbon Dioxide Emission

When countriesassess their annual carbon dioxide emissions, they count up their cars andpower stations, but bush fires are not included – presumably because they aredeemed to be events beyond human control. In Australia, Victoria alone seesseveral hundred thousand hectares burn each year; in both 2004 and morerecently, the figure has been over 1 million hectares.

1.3     Productive Capacity

The core ofthe problem was the immense disparity between the country‘s productive capacityand the ability of people to consume. Great innovations in productivetechniques during and after the war raised the output of industry beyond thepurchasing capacity of U.S. farmers and wage earners.

1.4     Himalayas

Although ithails from a remote region of the western Himalayas. This plant now looksentirely at home on the banks of English rives. Brought to the UK in 1839. itquickly escaped from Victorian gardens and colonized river banks and dampwoodlands. In the Himalayas the plant is held in check by various pests, buttake these away and it grows and reproduces unhindered. Now it is spreadingacross Europe, New Zealand, Canada and the US.

1.5     Pluto

Pluto lost itsofficial status as a planet yesterday, when the International AstronomicalUnion downsized the solar system from nine to eight planets. Although there hadbeen passionate debate at the General Assembly Meeting in Prague about thedefinition of a planet – and whether Pluto met the specifications – theaudience greeted the decision to exclude it with applause.

1.6     Father

Ever since Iremembered, father woke up at five thirty every morning, made us all breakfastand read newspaper. After that he would go to work. He worked as a writer. Itwas a long time before I realize he did this for a living.

1.7     Fiscal Year

At thebeginning of each fiscal year funds are allocated to each State account inaccordance with the University’s financial plan. Funds are allocated to eachaccount by object of expenditure. Account managers are responsible for ensuringthat adequate funds are available in the appropriate object before initiatingtransactions to use the funds.

1.8     Lincoln

Lincoln’sapparently radical change of mind about his war power to emancipate slaves wascaused by the escalating scope of the war, which convinced him that anymeasure to weaken the Confederacy and strengthen the Union war effort wasjustifiable as a military necessity.

1.9     Shakespeare

A young manfrom a small provincial town -- a man without independent wealth, withoutpowerful family connections and without a university education -- moves toLondon in the late 1580‘s and, in a remarkably short time, becomes the greatestplaywright of all time. How was this achievement of magnitude made? How doesShakespeare become Shakespeare?

1.10  Akimbo

Akimbo, thismust be one of the odder-looking words in the language and puzzles us in partbecause it doesn’t seem to have any relatives, What’s more, it is now virtuallya fossil word, until recently almost invariably found in arms akimbo, a posturein which a person stands with hands on hips and elbows sharply bent outward,one signaling impatience, hostility, or contempt.

1.11  Yellow

Yellow is themost optimistic color, yet surprisingly, people lose their tempers most oftenin yellow rooms and babies cry more. The reason may be that yellow is thehardest color on the eye, so it can be overpowering if overused.

1.12  Edison and Tesla

Tesla actuallyworked for Edison early in his career. Edison offered to pay him the modernequivalent of a million dollars to fix the problems he was having with his DCgenerators and motors. Tesla fixed Edison’s machines and when he asked for themoney he was promised, Edison laughed him off and had this to say, “Tesla, youdon’t understand our American humor.”

1.13  Yellow Tulip

How do weimagine the unimaginable? If we’re asked to think of an object - say, a yellowtulip – a picture immediately forms in our mind’s eye. But what if we try toimagine a concept such as the square root of negative number?

1.14  Non-Material Culture

For thepurposes of argument, culture is divided into material and non-material, andthe speaker‘s aim is to show how they both affect each other. Materialdevelopments in tools and technology can affect non-material culture, ourcustoms and beliefs, and the other way around. Genetics is used as an exampleas it has changed the way we think about life, but also our beliefs haveaffected its rate of development.

1.15  Introvert and Extrovert

Introvert (orthose of us with introverted tendencies) tends to recharge by spending timealone. They lose energy from being around people for long periods of time,particularly large crowed. Extroverts, on the other hand, gain energy fromother people. Extroverts actually find their energy is sapped when they spendtoo much time alone. They recharge by being social.

1.16  Incentive Pay Schemes

If bonus orincentive pay schemes work so well for chief executive and bankers, why doeseveryone not get them? After all, many jobs involve making important decisionsor taking risks is there anything about corporate decision and financial risksthat makes these categories of work special in terms of how they need to beincentivized and rewarded?

1.17  Population Growth

How quickly isthe world’s population growing? In the United States and other developedcountries, the current growth rate is very low. In most developing countries,the human population is growing at a rate of 3 people per second. Because ofthis bustling growth rate, the human population is well on its way to reaching9 billion within lifetime.

1.18  Price on Carbon Emissions

This is whatneeds to happen on climate change: the world needs to put a price on carbonemissions and let the market respond. If politicians pretend this can be donewithout pain, it will probably result in another five to ten years ofpretending to take action.

1.19  Augustus

Augustus wasgiven the powers of an absolute monarch, but he presented himself as thepreserver of republican traditions. He treated the Senate, or state council,with great respect, and was made Consul year after year. He successfullyreduced the political power of the army by retiring many soldiers, but givingthem land or money to keep their loyalty.

1.20  Industrial Revolution

As to theIndustrial Revolution, one cannot dispute today the fact that it has succeededin inaugurating in a number of countries a level of mass prosperity which wasundreamt of in the days preceding the Industrial Revolution. But, on theimmediate impact of Industrial Revolution, there were substantial divergencesamong writers.

1.21  Major Breeding Areas

Major breedingareas, and breeding islands, are shown as dark green areas or darts. Open dartsshown no-breeding records on islands, and are also used for offshore sightings,that is from ships or boats. Other areas where species is not meant to be seenare plain pale green, with pale green hatching where records are usuallysparse.

1.22  Diversity of Language

The diversityof human language may be compared to the diversity of the natural world. Justas the demise of plant species reduces genetic diversity, and deprives humanityor potential medical and biological resources. So extinction of language takeswith it a wealth of culture, art and knowledge.

1.23  Stress

This studytracked about 1,000 adults in the United States, and they ranged in age from 34to 93, and they started the study by asking, 'How much stress have youexperienced in the last year?' They also asked, 'How much time have you spenthelping out friends, neighbors, people in your community?' And then they usedpublic records for the next five years to find out who died.

1.24  Vanilla

The uniquelyscented flavor of vanilla is second only to chocolate in popularity on theworld’s palate. It’s also the second most expensive spice after saffron. Buthighly labor intensive cultivation methods and the plant’s temperamental lifecycle and propagation mean production on a global scale is struggling to keepup with the increasing demand for the product.

1.25  Living Room

Living room isthe most used part that withholds most of the traffic coming in and out of thehouse. It is highly recommended that the flooring should be strong enough thatit can endure all such amendments done with your furniture or to the increasingand decreasing ratio of visitors. For this purpose, you can opt for hardwoodflooring. Being classy and sophisticated in look it is the perfect choice foryour living room whenever you are remodeling your home.

1.26  Teacher’s instruction

In classes,your teachers will talk about topics that you are studying. The informationthat they provide will be important to know when you take tests. You must beable to take good written notes from what your teacher say.

1.27  Solar Energy

Solar energyis an excellent source of supplying power to homes and companies and byutilizing solar power you're not merely protecting the environment frombecoming polluted but also you are saving the rest of the earth's naturalresources. Capturing solar energy does not contribute to any pollution and doesnot harm the atmosphere. One of the factors why many individuals are stillhesitant to make use of solar power is

because it isexpensive. The need of big location of space is another reason why peoplearen't taking into consideration solar power.

1.28  No ordinary book

This book isno ordinary book, and should not be read through from beginning to end. Itcontains many different adventures, and the path you take will depend on thechoices you make along the way. The success or failure of your mission willdepend on the decisions you make, so think carefully before choosing.

1.29  MBA

Exhilarating,exhausting and intense. There are just some of the words used to describe doingan MBA. Everyone’s experience of doing MBA is, of course, different throughdenying that it’s hard and a demanding work whichever course you do. MBA is oneof the fastest growing areas of studying in the UK so that must be asustainable benefit against form in one pain.

1.30  Legal Writing

Legal writingis usually less discursive than writing in other humanities subjects, andprecision is more important than variety. Sentence structure should not be toocomplex; it is usually unnecessary to make extensive use of adjectives oradverbs, and consistency of terms is often required.

1.31  Semiconductor

Thesemiconductor industry has been able to improve the performance of electricsystems for more than four decades by making ever-smaller devices. However,this approach will soon encounter both scientific and technical limits, whichis why the industry is exploring a number of alternative device technologies.It isn’t rate for private equity houses to hire grads fresh out of businessschool, but nine times our of ten, the students who nab these jobs are the oneswho had private equity experience under their before even starting their MBAprogram.

1.32  Two Sisters

Two sisters were at a dinner party when the conversationturned to upbringing. The elder sister started to say that her parents had beenvery strict and that she had been rather frightened of them. Her sister,younger by two years, interrupted in amazement. “What are you talking about?”she said, “Our parents were very lenient”.

1.33  Weakness

Weakness in electronics, auto and gas station salesdragged down overall retail sales last month, but excluding those threecategories, retailers enjoyed healthy increases across the board, according togovernment figures released Wednesday. Moreover, December sales numbers werealso advised higher.

1.34  Japanese tea ceremony

The Japanese tea ceremony is a tour influenced byBuddhism in which green tea is prepared and served to a small group of guestsin a peaceful setting. The ceremony can take as long as four hours and thereare many traditional gestures that both the server and the guest must perform.

1.35  Ignorance and Lethargy

In his landmark account, first published over twentyyears ago, the author argues that the ignorance and lethargy of the poor aredirect results of the whole situation of economic, social and political domination.By being kept in a situation in which critical awareness and response arepractically impossible, the disadvantaged are kept ‘submerged’.

1.36  Russia

Long isolated from Western Europe, Russia grew up withoutparticipating in the development like the Reformation that many Europeanstaking pride in their unique culture, find dubious value. Russia is, as aresult, the most unusual member of European family, if indeed it is European atall. The question is still open to debate, particularly among Russiansthemselves.

1.37  Marketing Management

For any marketing course that requires the development ofa marketing plan, such as Marketing Management, Marketing Strategy andPrinciples of Marketing. This is the only planning handbook that guidesstudents through step by step creations of a customized marketing plan whileoffering commercial software to aid in the process.

1.38  21st century

The beginning of the twenty-first century will beremembered, nor for military conflicts or political events, but for a whole newage of globalization – a ‘flattening’ of the world. The explosion of advancedtechnologies now means that suddenly knowledge pools and resources haveconnected all over the planet, leveling the playing field as never before.

PART 2: RepeatSentence


2.1     39.5%of Californian residents didn’t speak English at home.

2.2     Acomputer virus destroyed all my files.

2.3     Ademonstrated ability to write clear, correct and concise English is bigotry.

2.4     Ademonstrated ability to write clear, correct and concise English is bigotry.

2.5     Apreliminary bibliography is due the week before the spring break.

2.6     Athorough bibliography is needed at the end of every assignment.

2.7     Allpostgraduate students should participate in the seminar.

2.8     Allthe assignments must be submitted by the end of this week.

2.9     Answeringthis complex question with a simple yes or no is absolutely impossible.

2.10  Anytext or references you make should be cited appropriately in the footnotes.

2.11  Asfor me, it is a strategy to go to judicial review.

2.12  Basketballwas created in 1891 by a physician and a physical instructor.

2.13  Beinga vegan means not eating any other meat.

2.14  Biographicalinformation should be removed before the publication of the results.

2.15  Byclicking this button, you agree with the terms and conditions of this website.

2.16  Companiesneed to satisfy customers’ needs if they want to be successful.

2.17  Conferencesare always scheduled on the third Wednesday of the month.

2.18  Couldyou pass the material to students that are in your row?

2.19  Don’tforget to hand in your assignments by the end of next week.

2.20  Dr.Green’s office has been moved to the second floor of the building.

2.21  Dueto rising demand for courses, the university should increase the staff, too.

2.22  Eatingtoo much will do harm to your health.

2.23  Elephantis the largest land living mammal.

2.24  Evenwith the permit, finding a parking spot on campus is still impossible. Studentswill not be given credits for assignments submitted after the due date.

2.25  Globalizationhas been an overwhelming urban and urbanization phenomenon.

2.26  Hewas not the only one to call for legal reforms/a legal reform in the 16thcentury.

2.27  I(have) had a sandwich and milk for my breakfast.

2.28  Ialways have one milk in my coffee in the morning.

2.29  Ican’t attend the lecture because I have a doctor’s appointment.

2.30  Ididn’t attend yesterday’s lecture. Can I borrow your notes?

2.31  Ididn’t understand the author’s point of view on immigration.

2.32  Imissed yesterday’s lecture. Can I borrow your notes?

2.33  Imissed yesterday’s lecture. Can I borrow your notes?

2.34  Iused to have a cup of coffee with one sugar.

2.35  Iused to have a cup of coffee with one sugar.

2.36  Iwill be in my office every day from 11 to 12.

2.37  Iwill be in my office every Tuesday and Thursday.

2.38  Iwould/don‘t like cheese and tomato sandwiches on white bread with orange juice.

2.39  I’mglad you got here safely.

2.40  Ifyou forgot your student number, you should contact Jenny Brice.

2.41  Ifyou have problems, please contact your tutor.

2.42  Ifyou want to receive the reimbursement, you must submit the original receipts.

2.43  InEurope, the political pressure is similar regarding globalization.

2.44  Interpretersare not readily available in this department.

2.45  Itis important to take gender into account when discussing the figures.

2.46  Makesure you correctly cite all your sources.

2.47  Maryfelt happy when she learned the results of the election.

2.48  Meetingwith tutors could be arranged for students who need additional help.

2.49  Meteorologyis a detailed study of earth’s atmosphere.

2.50  Mostanimals have triangular vocal cords, but the lion’s mighty pipes are square.

2.51  Mostuniversity teaching takes place in lectures and seminars.

2.52  Newspapersaround the world are reporting stories of presidents.

2.53  Nomore than four people can be in the lab at once.

2.54  Onbehalf of our department, I would like to thank you for your participation.

2.55  Onthis project, you will be asked to work as a group of three.

2.56  Physicsis the subject of matters and energy.

2.57  Pleasefinish all the reading chapters before the field trip.

2.58  Pleaseregister your student email account at your earliest convenience.

2.59  Portfoliois due to the internal review office no later than Tuesday.

2.60  Putthe knife and fork next to the spoon near the edge of the table.

2.61  Reservedcollection books can be borrowed up to three hours.

2.62  Residentshall is closed prior to the academic building closing time at the end of thesemester.

2.63  Shehas been in the library for a long time.

2.64  Sheis an expert of the 18th century French literature.

2.65  Spiritualismis defined as a system of belief or religious practice.

2.66  Sportis the cause of traumatic brain injuries in the United States.

2.67  Studentloans are now available for international students.

2.68  Studentresidents hall/accommodation is very close to the academic building … in awalking distance.

2.69  Studentsare so scared of writing essays because they have never learned how.

2.70  Studentscan download the materials from the website.

2.71  Studentsshould take advantage of the online resources before attending the lecture.

2.72  Theauthor expressed a (n.) that modern readers (adv.) cannot accept.

2.73  Theclear evidence between brain events and behavioral events is fascinating.

2.74  Thecollege welcomes students from all over the world.

2.75  Thecontext/contest includes both the land history and the human history.

2.76  Thecourse registration is open early March for new students.

2.77  Thefirst few sentences of an essay should capture the readers’ attention.

2.78  Thefirst person in space was from the Soviet Union.

2.79  Theglass is not the real solid, because it doesn’t have crystal structure.

2.80  Thelecture theatre one is located on the ground floor of the pack building.

2.81  Thelecture tomorrow will discuss the educational policies in the United States.

2.82  Theminimal mark for Distinction is no less than 75%.

2.83  Theoffice opens on Mondays and Thursdays directly follow the freshman seminar.

2.84  Theopposition has so far been unresponsive to our proposal.

2.85  Theoriginal Olympic Games were celebrated as religious festivals.

2.86  ThePsychology Department is looking for volunteers to be involved in researchprojects.

2.87  Thereal reason for global hunger is not the lack of food, but poverty.

2.88  Therecent study has thrown out the validity of the argument.

2.89  Theresult of the study will be published next month.

2.90  Theseminar on writing skills has been canceled.

2.91  Thestudent welfare officer can help with questions about exam technique.

2.92  Thetest selected materials from all chapters in this course this semester.

2.93  Thetheoretical proposal was challenged to grass.

2.94  TheUnited Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy.

2.95  Theverdict depends on which side was more convincing to the jury.

2.96  Thewheelchair lift has been upgraded this month.

2.97  Thereis a pharmacy on campus near the store.

2.98  Thereis no entrance fee for tonight’s lecture.

2.99  Thereis varying plagiarism across different university departments.

2.100   There will be ampleopportunities to ask questions about the presentation.

2.101  Toreceive the reimbursement, you must keep the original receipts.

2.102  Tomorrow’slecture will discuss educational policy in the United States.

2.103  Unfortunately,the two most interesting economic electives clash on my time table.

2.104  Unfortunately,the two most interesting economic electives clash on my timetable.

2.105  Vesselscarry blood from the heart to other parts of the body.

2.106  Weare delighted to have professor Robert to join our faculty.

2.107  Weare not going to accept the assignment after the due date on Friday.

2.108  Wemust hand in our assignments by the end of the week.

2.109  Weshould take gender into account when analyzing the data.

2.110  Wouldyou pass me the book on the left-hand side?

2.111  Youcan get a student card at the reception.

2.112  Youcome with me. The others stay here.

2.113  Youshould include your name and identification number in the registration form.

PART 4Summarize Written Text


4.1     The charging car

Here's a term you're going to hear much moreoften: plug-in vehicle, and the acronym PEV. It's what you and many otherpeople will drive to work in, ten years and more from now. At that time, beforeyou drive off in the morning you will first unplug your car - your pluginvehicle. Its big on board batteries will have been fully charged overnight,with enough power for you to drive 50-100 kilometers through city traffic.

When you arrive at work you'll plug in yourcar once again, this time into a socket that allows power to flow form yourcar's batteries to the electricity grid. One of the things you did when youbought your car was to sign a contract with your favorite electricity supplier,allowing them to draw a limited amount of power from your car's batteriesshould they need to, perhaps because of a blackout, or very high wholesale spotpower prices. The price you get for the power the distributor buys from yourcar would not only be most attractive to you, it would be a good deal for themtoo, their alternative being very expensive power form peaking stations. If,driving home or for some other reason your batteries looked like running flat,a relatively small, but quiet and efficient engine running on petrol, diesel orcompressed natural gas, even bio-fuel, would automatically cut in, driving agenerator that supplied the batteries so you could complete your journey.

Concerns over 'peak oil', increasinggreenhouse gas emissions, and the likelihood that by the middle of this centurythere could be five times as many motor vehicles registered worldwide as thereare now, mean that the world's almost total dependence on petroleum-based fuelsfor transport is, in every sense of the word, unsustainable.


Plug-in vehicles with a small and efficientengine will be what many people drive to work in ten years and more from now,which can be fully charged for you to drive 50-100 km, and also, electricitysuppliers can draw a limited amount of power from your car’s batteries shouldthey need to, because the world’s almost total dependence on petroleum basedfuels for transport is unsustainable. (Word count: 70)

4.2     Rosetta Stone

Whenthe Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799, the carved characters that coveredits surface were quickly copied. Printers ink was applied to the Stone andwhite paper was laid over it. When the paper was removed, it revealed an exactcopy of the textbut in reverse. Since then, many copies or facsimiles have beenmade using a variety of materials. Inevitably, the surface of the Stoneaccumulated many layers of material left over from these activities, despiteattempts to remove any residue. Once on display, the grease from many thousandsof human hands eager to touch the Stone added to the problem.

Anopportunity for investigation and cleaning the Rosetta Stone arose when thisfamous object was made the centerpiece of the Cracking Codes exhibition at TheBritish Museum in 1999. When work commenced to remove all but the original,ancient material, the stone was black with white lettering. As treatmentprogressed, the different substances uncovered were analyzed. Grease from humanhandling, a coating of carnauba wax from the early 1800s and printers ink from1799 were cleaned away using cotton wool swabs and liniment of soap, whitespirit, acetone and purified water. Finally, white paint in the text, appliedin 1981, which had been left.

PART 5Fill in The Blank-R & RW


5.1     Impressionist (RW)

Impressionism was anineteenth-century art movement that began as a loose association ofParis-based artists who started publicly exhibiting their art in the 1860s. Characteristics ofImpressionist painting include visible brush strokes, light colors, opencomposition, emphasis onlight in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passageof time), ordinary subject matter, and unusual visual angles. The name of themovement is derived fromClaude Monet's Impression, Sunrise (Impression, Soleil Levant). Critic LouisLeroy inadvertently coined the term in a satiric review published in LeCharivari.

Radicals in their time,early Impressionists broke the rules of academic painting. They began by givingcolors, freely brushed, primacy over line, drawing inspiration from the work of painterssuch as Eugene Delacroix. They also took the act of painting out of the studioand into the world. Previously, not only still-lives and portraits, but alsolandscapes had been painted indoors, but the Impressionists found that theycould capture themomentary and transient effects of sunlight by painting air (in plain air).

5.2     Advertising a globalperspective (RW)

Drive down any highway,and you’ll see a proliferation of chain restaurants-most likely, if you travellong and far enough, you’ll see McDonald’s golden arches as well as signs forBurger King, Hardee’s and Wendy’s, the “big four” of burgers. Despite its name,though. Burger King has fallen short of claiming the burger crown, unableto surpass market leader MacDonald's No.1 sales status. Always the bridesmaidand never the bride, Burger King remains No.2.

Worse yet, Burger Kinghas experienced a six-year 22 percent decline in customer traffic, with itsoverall quality rating dropping while ratings for the other three contenders have increased. Thedecline has been attributed to inconsistent product quality and poor customerservice. Although the chain tends to throw advertising dollars at the problem,an understanding of Integrated Marketing Communications theory would suggestthat internal management problems (nineteen CEOs in fifty years) need to berectified before a unified, long-term strategy can be put in place.

The importance of consistency in brandimage and messages, not at all levels of communication, has become a basictenet of IMC theory and practice. The person who takes the customer’s ordermust communicate the same message a Burger King’s famous tagline, “have it yourway” or the customer will just buzz up the highway to a chain restaurant thatseems more consistent and, therefore, more reliable.

5.3     Kashmiri

Two decades ago,Kashmiri houseboat-owners rubbed their hands every spring at the prospect ofthe annual influx of tourists. From May to October, thehyacinth-choked waters ofDal Lake saw flotillas of vividly painted Shikaras carrying Indian families.Then, in 1989, everything changed. Hindus and countless Kashmiri businesspeople bolted, at least 35,000 people were killed in a decade, the lakestagnated, and the houseboats rotted. Any foreigners venturing there riskedtheir lives,proved in 1995 when five young Europeans were kidnapped and murdered.

5.4     Symphony

Away from the rumble ofShanghai's highways and cacophony of the shopping districts, stroll down sidestreets filled with rows of tall brick houses. In the early evening or on aweekend morning, you'll hear the sound of classical music drifting froma piano, played by a 10-year old or a grandmother in her seventies. Wander downanother alley toward drab skyscraper, and you'll hear Beethovenor Mozart flowing from a violin, or perhaps a cello, accordion or flute.

In China, classicalmusic is booming asmightily as the 1812 Overture. It's fortissimo in Shanghai, home to China's oldestorchestra, forte in Beijing and other lively cities, and on a crescendo infarther-flung areas. Commanding 100- 200 ($12.50- $25) per hour, private musicteachers in Shanghai can readily earn more than five times the average per capitamonthly income.

5.5     Kimbell (RW)

The first section of thebook covers new modes of assessment. In Chapter 1, Kimbell (Goldsmith College,London responds to criticisms ofdesign programs as formalistic and conventional, stating that a focus onrisk-taking than hard work in design innovation is equally problematic. Hisresearch contains three parts that include preliminary exploration of designinnovation qualities, investigation of resulting classroom practices, anddevelopment of the evidence-based assessment. The assessment he describes ispresented in the form of a structured worksheet, which includes a collaborativeelement anddigital photographs, in story format. Such a device encourages stimulatingideas but does not recognize students as design innovators. The assessment sheetincludes holistic impressions as well as details about "having, growing,and proving" ideas. Colloquial judgments are evident interms such as "wow" and "yawn" and reward the quality andquantity of ideas with the term, "sparkiness," which fittingly is apun as the model project was to design light bulb packaging. In addition, theassessment focuses on the process of optimizing or complexity control as wellas proving ideas with thoughtful criticism and not just generation of novelideas. The definitions for qualities such as "technical" and"aesthetic" pertaining to users are too narrow and ill-defined. Theauthor provides examples ofthe project, its features and structures, students' notes and judgments, andtheir sketches and photographs of finished light bulb packages, in theAppendix.

5.6     Jean Piaget (RW)

Jean Piaget, thepioneering Swiss philosopher, and psychologist spent much of his professionallife listening to children, watching children and poring over reports of researchersaround the world who were doing the same. He found, to put most succinctly,that children don’t think like grownups. After thousands of interactions withyoung people often barely old enough to talk, Piaget began to suspect thatbehind their cute and seemingly illogical utterances were thought processesthat had their own kind of order and their own special logic. Einstein calledit a discovery “so simple that only a genius could have thought of it.”

Piaget’s insight openeda new window into the inner workings of the mind. By the end of a wide-rangingand remarkably prolific researchcareer that spanned nearly 75 years, from his first scientific publication atage 10 to work still in progress when he died at 84, Piaget had developedseveral new fields of science: developmental psychology, cognitive theory andwhat came to be called genetic epistemology. Although not an educationalreformer, he championed away of thinking about children that provided the foundation for today's education-reformmovements. Itwas a shift comparable to the displacement of stories of "noblesavages" and "cannibals" by modern anthropology. One might saythat Piaget was the first to take children's thinking seriously.

5.7     Definition of Country (RW)

What is a country, andhow is a country defined? When people ask how many countries there are in theworld, they expect asimple answer. After all, we've explored the whole planet; we haveinternational travel, satellite navigation and plenty of global organizationslike the United Nations, so we should really know how manycountries there are! However, the answer to the question varies according to whom you ask. Mostpeople say there are 192 countries, but others point out that there could bemore like 260 of them. So why isn't there a straightforward answer? The problemarises becausethere isn't a universally agreed definition of 'country' and because, for politicalreasons, some countries find it convenient to recognize or notrecognize other countries.

5.8     The writing on the wall

The inevitableconsequences include rampantcorruption, an absence of globally competitive Chinese companies, chronic wasteof resources, rampant environmental degradation, and soaring inequality.Above all, the monopoly over power of an ideologically bankrupt communist partyis inconsistent withthe pluralism of opinion, security of property and vibrant competition on whicha dynamic economy depends. As a result, Chinese development remains parasiticon know-how and institution developed elsewhere

5.9     Enigma

And if the voice of ananimal is not heard as message but as art, interesting things start to happen:Nature is no longer an alien enigma, but instead somethingimmediately beautiful, an exuberant opus with space for us tojoin in. Bird melodies have always been called songs for a reason.

5.10  Oxford medical school (RW)

When I enrolled in mymaster's course at Oxford last year, I had come straight from medical schoolwith the decision to leave clinical science for good. Thinking back, I realizethat I didn't put very much weight on this decision at the time.But today, I more clearly understand the consequences of leaving my originalprofession. When I meet old

friends who are nowphysicians and surgeons, I sense how our views on medical problems have diverged.They scrutinize the effects of disease and try to eliminate or alleviate them;I try to understand how they come about in the first place. I feel happierworking on this side of the problem, although I do occasionally miss clinicalwork and seeing patients.

However, when I thinkabout the rate at which my medical skills and knowledge have dissipated,the years spent reading weighty medical textbooks, the hours spent at thebedside, I sometimes wonder if these years were partly a waste of time now that I am pursuing aresearch career.

Nonetheless, I know thevalue of my medical education. It is easy to forget the importance of thebiosciences when working with model organisms in basic research that seem tohave nothing to do with a sick child or a suffering elderly person. Yet, Istill have vivid memories of the cruel kaleidoscope of severe diseases and ofhow they can strike ahuman being. I hope to retain these memories as a guide in my currentoccupation.

5.11  Space work

The space work for anastronaut can be inside or outside, inside they can monitormachines, and the work is carried out alongside the craft. Theyalso need to make sure the Space Travel. Outside the craft, they can see howthe seeds react in the space. Some seeds company send seeds to them to investigate howseeds change their biological character. When outside the craft, they can setup experiments or clean up the space rubbish.

5.12  Work of scientists

Scientists make observations,assumptions and do experiments.After these have been done, he analyses the results. These results are compiledinto data whichgives scientists a clearer picture of world around us.

5.13  DOG

A DOG may be man's bestfriend. But man is not always a dog's. Over the centuries selective breeding has pulled at thecanine body shape to produce what is often a grotesque distortion of theunderlying wolf. Indeed, some of these distortions are, when found in people,regarded as pathologies.

Dog breeding does,though, offer a chance to those who would like to understand how body shape iscontrolled. The ancestry of pedigree pooches is well recorded, their generationtime is short and their litter size reasonably large, so thereis plenty of material to work with. Moreover, breeds are, by definition,inbred, and this simplifies genetic analysis. Those such as Elaine Ostrander,of America's National Human Genome Research Institute, who wish to identify thegenetic basis of the features of particular pedigrees thus have an ideal experimentalanimal.

5.14  Ministerial staffing system

The contemporaryministerial staffing system is large, active and partisan - far larger andfurther evolved than any West minster equivalent. Ministers' demands for helpto cope with the pressures of an increasingly competitive and professionalizedpolitical environment have been key drivers of the staffing system'sdevelopment. But there has not been commensurate growth in arrangements to support and controlit. The operating frameworkfor ministerial staff is fragmented and ad hoc.

5.15  Parliament (RW)

No one in Parliamentwould know better than Peter Garrett what largesse copyright can confer so itmay seem right that he should announce a royalty for artists, amounting to 5percent of all sales after the original one, which can go on giving to theirfamilies for as much as 150 years. But that ignores the truth that copyrightlaw is a scandal, recently exacerbated by the Free TradeAgreement with the US which required the extension of copyright to 70 yearsafter death.

Is it scandalous thatreally valuable copyrights end up in the ownership of corporations (althoughAgatha Christie's no-doubt worthy great-grandchildren are still reaping thebenefits of West End success for her whodunnits and members of the Garrick Clubenjoy the continuing fruits of A.A. Milne's Christopher Robin books)? No. The scandals arethat been peasants politicians have attempted to appear cultured by creatingprivate assets which depend on an act of Parliament for their existence and bygiving away much more in value than any public benefit could justify. In doingso, they have betrayed our trust.

5.16  Complementary therapies (RW)

Complementary therapies- such as those practiced by naturopaths, chiropractors, and acupuncturists -have become increasingly popular in Australia over the last few decades.Interest initially coincided with enthusiasm for alternative lifestyles,while immigration and increased contact and trade with China have also had an influence.The status of complementary therapies is being re-visited in a number of areas:legal regulation the stances of doctors' associations their inclusion inmedical education and scientific research into their efficacy.

5.17  Personal life

In 2001 he received theSIUC Outstanding Scholar Award. In 2003 he received the Carski Award forDistinguished Undergraduate Teaching from the American Society forMicrobiology. Mikes research is focused on bacteria that inhabitextreme environments,and for the past 12 years, he has studied the microbiology of permanentlyice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In addition to hisresearch papers, he has edited a major treatise on phototrophic bacteria andserved for over a decade as chief editor of the journal Archives of Microbiology. He currentlyserves on the editorial board of Environmental Microbiology. Mikesnonscientific interests includeforestry, reading, and caring for his dogs and horses. He lives beside apeaceful and quiet lake with his wife, Nancy, five shelter dogs (Gaino ,Snuffy, Pepto, Peanut, and Merry), and four horses (Springer, Feivel, Gwen, andFestus).

5.18  Egg-eating snakes (RW)

Egg-eating snakes are asmall group of snakes whose diet consists only of eggs. Some eatonly bird's eggs, which they have to swallow whole, as the snake has no teeth.Instead, these snakes have spines that stick out from the backbone. The spines crack the eggopen as itpasses through the throat.

5.19  Thea Proctor

Thea Proctor was justsixteen when her entry at the Bowral Art Competition caught the eye of thejudge, Arther Streeton. It was the first of many associations with art world recruits. Thenext year saw her at the Julian Ashton Art School in the illustrious company ofElioth Gruner, Sydney Long and George Lambert, for whom she often posed andwho remained hergreat friend until his death in 1930.

Lambert's paintings andsketches of Proctor emphasize the elegance of her dress. A keen interest infashion was just one aspect of her fascination with design,and she saw herself as an early style guru on a quest to rid Australian art of "it'slack of imagination and inventive design." Skilled in watercolors anddrawings, Proctor did not limit herself to paper, canvases orher popular magazine illustrations; she designed theatre sets and a restaurantinterior and wrote on a range of subjects from flower arranging to the colorsof cars. It made for a busy and varied life but, as she said, she wasnot the sort of person "who could sit at home and knit socks."

5.20  Dairy farms (RW)

A few summers ago Ivisited two dairy farms, Huls Farm and Gardar Farm, which despite being locatedthousands of miles apart were still remarkably similar in their strengths andvulnerabilities. Both were by far the largest, most prosperous, mosttechnologically advanced farms in their respective districts. In particular,each was centered around a magnificent state-of-the-art barn for sheltering andmilking cows. Those structures, both neatly divided into opposite-facing rowsof cow stalls, dwarfed all other barns in the district. Both farms let theircows graze outdoorsin lush pastures during the summer, produced their hay to harvest in the latesummer for feeding the cows through the winter, and increased their production of summerfodder and winter hay by irrigating their fields. The two farms were similar inan area (a few square miles) and barn size, Huls barn holding somewhat morecows than Gardar barn (200 vs. 165 cows, respectively). The owners of both farmswere viewed as leaders of their respective societies. Both owners were deeplyreligious. Both farms were located in gorgeous natural settings that attracttourists from afar, with backdrops of high snow-capped mountains drained bystreams teaming with fish, and sloping down to a famous river (below Huls Farm)or 3ord (below Gardar Farm).

5.21  Investment

One city will start toattract the majority ofpublic or private investment. This could be due to natural advantage or politicaldecisions. This, in turn, will stimulate further investment due tothe multiplier effect and significant rural to urban migration.The investment in this city will be at the expense of other cities.

5.22  Northern spotted owls (RW)

Our analysis of thegenetic structure of northern spotted owls across most of the range of thesubspecies allowed us to test for genetic discontinuities and identifylandscape features that influence the subspecies’ genetic structure. Althoughno distinct geneticbreaks were found in northern spotted owls, several landscape features wereimportant

in structuring geneticvariation. Dry, low elevation valleys and the high elevation Cascade andOlympic Mountains restricted gene flow, while the lower Oregon Coast Range facilitated geneflow, acting as a “genetic corridor.” The Columbia River did not act as abarrier, suggesting owlsreadily fly over this large river. Thus, even in taxa such as northern spottedowls with potential for long-distance dispersal, landscape features can have animportant impact on gene flow and genetic structure

5.23  Essays

Essays are used as anassessment tool to evaluate yourability to research a topic and construct an argument, as well as yourunderstanding of subject content. This does not mean that essays are a'regurgitation' of everything your lecture has said throughout the course. Essays are youropportunity to explore in greater depth aspects of the course -theories, issues, texts, etc. and in some cases relate these aspects to a particular context.It is your opportunity to articulate your ideas, but in a certain way: using formal academicstyle.

5.24  Estee Lauder

She transformed beautyinto big business by cultivating classy sales methods and giving away samples.

Leonard Lauder, chiefexecutive of the company his mother founded, says she always thought she “wasgrowing a mice little business.” And that it is. A little business that controls 45%of the cosmetics market in U.S. department stores. A little business that sellsin 118 countries and last year grew to be $3.6 billion big in sales. The Lauderfamily's shares are worth more than $6 billion.

But early on, therewasn't a burgeoning business; there weren't houses in New York. Palm Beach,Fla., or the south of France. It is said that at one point there was one personto answer the telephones who changed her voice to become theshipping or billing department as needed.

You more or less knowthe Estee Lauder story because it's a chapter from the book of American businessfolklore. In short, Josephine Esther Mentzer, daughter of immigrants, livedabove her father's hardware store in Corona, a section of Queens in New YorkCity. She started her enterprise by selling skin creamsconcocted by her uncle, a chemist, in beauty shops, beach clubs and resorts.

No doubt the potionswere good – Estee Lauder was a quality fanatic - but the sales lady was better.Much better. And she simply outworked everyone else in the cosmetics industry.She stalked thebosses of New York City department stores until she got some counter space atSaks Fifth Avenue in 1948. And once in that space, she utilized a personal sellingapproach that proved as potent as the promise of her skin regimens andperfumes.

5.25  Professor Phoenix (RW)

Moreover, for ProfessorDavid Phoenix, the dean of the faculty of science and technology, the return ofsingle-honours chemistry isa matter of credibility and pride. "If you say you're a science faculty,you have to have all the core sciences, and this course will mean we attract anew supply of potential Masters and PhD students in chemistry."

Phoenix is adamant thatthe new course will teach solid chemistry, but he thinks that an attraction forstudents will be a teaching approach that differs significantly from his days asan undergraduate. This takes real-life issues as the starting point of lecturesand modules, such as how drugs are made or the science behind green issues. Outof this study, he says, students will be exposed to the same core chemistryunchanged over decades, but they will be doing it in a way that is more engaging andmore likely to lead to more fundamental learning. It is an approach that symbolizeschemistry’s recent success story: moving with the times, while holding fast tothe subject’s essential role as a building block of science and technologicaladvance.

5.26  Folklore

A modern term for the body of traditional customs, superstitions,stories, dances, and songs that have been adopted and maintained within a givencommunity byprocesses of repetition is not reliant on the written word. Along with folk songs andfolktales, this broad category of cultural forms embracesall kinds of legends, riddles, jokes, proverbs, games, charms, omens, spells,and rituals, especially those of pre-literate societies or social classes.Those forms of verbal expression that are handed on from one generation orlocality to the next by word of the month are said to constitute an oraltradition.

5.27  Lure New Students (RW)

In an attempt to lure newstudents, leading business schools - including Harvard, Stanford, the Universityof Chicago and Wharton - have moved away from the unofficial missions and prerequisite offour years' work experience and instead have set their sights onrecent college graduates and so-called “early career” professionals with only a couple yearsof work under their belt.

5.28  Eiffel (RW)

The Eiffel Tower was thetallest building in the world when it was completed in 1889. It was built forthe World’s Fair to demonstrate thatiron could be as strong as a store while being infinitely lighter. And in fact,the wrought-iron tower is twice as tall as the masonry Washington Monument, andyet it weighs 70,000 tons less! It is repainted every seven years with 50 tonsof dark brown paint.

Called “the father ofthe skyscraper,” the Home Insurance Building, constructed in Chicago in 1885 (anddemolished in 1931), was 138 feet tall and ten stories. It was the firstbuilding to effectively employ a supporting skeleton of steel beams and columns,allowing it to have many more windows than traditional masonry structures. Butthis new construction method made people worry that the building would falldown, leading the city to halt construction until they could investigate thestructure’s safety.

In 1929, auto tycoonWalter Chrysler took part in an intense race with the Bank of Manhattan TrustCompany to build the world’s tallest skyscraper. Just when it looked like thebank had captured the coveted title, workers at the ChryslerBuilding jacked a thin spire hidden inside the building through the top of theroof to win the contest (subsequently losing the title four months later to theEmpire State Building). Chrysler also decorated his building to mirror hiscars, with hubcaps, mudguards, and hood ornaments.

5.29  Arbitration

Arbitration is a methodof conflict resolution which, with more or less formalized mechanisms, occursin many political and legal spheres. There are two main characteristics to arbitration. Thefirst is that it is a voluntary process under which two parties in conflictagree between themselves to be bound by the judgment of athird party which has no other authority over them; the judgment, however, isnot legally binding. The second is that there is usually no clear body of law or set of rules thatmust apply; the arbitrator is free, subject to any prior agreementwith the conflicting parties, to decide on whatever basis of justice is deemed suitable.

5.30  Definition of Country (RW)

What is a country, andhow is a country defined? When people ask how many countries there are in theworld, they expect asimple answer. After all, we've explored the whole planet; we haveinternational travel, satellite navigation and plenty of global organizationslike the United Nations, so we should really know how manycountries there are! However, the answer to the question varies according to whom you ask. Mostpeople say there are 192 countries, but others point out that there could bemore like 260 of them. So why isn't there a straightforward answer? The problemarises becausethere isn't a universally agreed definition of 'country' and because, for politicalreasons, some countries find it convenient to recognize or notrecognize other countries.

5.31  Children sleep patterns/儿童睡眠模式

Children have sound sleep patterns. They can successfullysleep for 8-9 hours and get up at a fixed time. But teenagers dont. Their need of earlystart to schools or other schedules can influence their sleep patterns.Despite these factors, they actually need longer sleep time.

5.32  Sales Jobs (RW)

Sales jobs allow for agreat deal of discretionary time and effort on the part of the salesrepresentatives – especially when compared with managerial, manufacturing, andservice jobs. Most sales representatives work independently and outside theimmediate presence of their sales managers. Therefore, some form of goals needsto be in place as motive andguide their performance.Sales personnel are not the only professionals with performance goals or quotas.Health care professionals operating in clinics have daily, weekly, and monthlygoals in terms of patient visits. Service personnel are assigned a number ofservice calls they must performduring a set time period. Production workers in manufacturing have outputgoals. So, why are achieving sales goals or quotas such a big deal? The answer tothis question can be found by examining how a firm's other departments areaffected by how well the company's salespeople achieve their performance goals.The success of the business hinges on the successful sales of its productsand services. Consider all the planning, the financial, production andmarketing efforts that go into producing what the sales force sells.Everyone depends on the sales force to sell the company's products and servicesand they eagerly anticipate knowing things are going.

5.33  Omniscience/全知

Omniscience may be a foible of men, but itis not so of books. Knowledge, as Johnson said, is of two kinds, youmay know a thing yourself, and you may know where to find it. Now the amountwhich you may actually know yourself must, at its best, be limited, but whatyou may know of the sourcesof information may, with proper training, become almostboundless. And here come the value and use of reference books—theworking of one book in connexion with another—and applying your own intelligence toboth. By this means we get as near to that omniscient volume which tellseverything as ever we shall get, and although the single volume or work whichtells everything does not exist, there is a vast number of reference books inexistence, a knowledge and proper use of which is essential to everyintelligent person. Necessary as I believe reference books to be, they caneasily be made to be contributory to idleness, and too mechanical a useshould not be made of them.

5.34  Legal deposit (RW)

Legal deposit hasexisted in English law since 1662. It helps to ensure that the nation’spublished output (and thereby its intellectual record and futurepublished heritage) is collected systematically, to preserve the material for the use offuture generations and to make it available for readers within the designated legaldeposit libraries. The Legal Deposit Libraries are the British Library, theNational Library of Scotland, the National Library of Wales, the Bodleian Libraries,Oxford and the University Library, Cambridge.

The legal deposit systemalso has benefits forauthors and publishers:

Deposited publicationsare made available to users of the deposit libraries on their premises, arepreserved for the benefit of future generations, and become part of thenation’s heritage.

Publications arerecorded in the online catalogs and become an essential research resource for generations tocome.

5.35  Water security (RW)

Equally critical is thechallenge of water security. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) has pointedout that about one- third of the world's population lives in countries withmoderate to high water stress, with a disproportionate impact on the poor.

With current projectedglobal population growth, the task of providing water for human sustenance willbecome increasingly difficult.

And increasingcompetition over this scarce but vital resource may fuel instability andconflict within states as well as between states.

The UN is doing a greatdeal in both areas to proactively foster collaboration among Member States.

UNEP has long beenactively addressing the water issue together with partner UN agencies andother organizations. Looking ahead, the UN can do more to build synergies oftechnology, policy and capacity in this field. In this regard, events like theannual World Water Week in Stockholm come to the forefront of the public mindwhen talking about championing water issues.

5.36  . Non-attendance

In reality, however, thecauses of truancy and non-attendance are diverseand multifaceted. There are as many causes of non-attendance as there arenon-attenders. Each child has her own unique story, and whilst there mayoften be certain identifiable factors in common, each non-attending childdemands and deserves anindividual response, tailored to meet her individual needs. This applies equally tothe 14-year-old who fails to attend school because a parent is terminally ill,the overweight 11 -year-old who fails to attend because he is embarrassed aboutchanging for PE in front of peers, the 15-year-old who is 'bored' by lessons,and to the seven-year-old who is teased in the playground because she does notwear the latest designer-label clothes.

5.37  Australia and New Zealand

Australia and NewZealand have many common links. Both countries were recently settled byEuropeans, are predominantly English speaking and in that sense, share a commoncultural heritage. Although in closeproximity to one another, both countries are geographically isolated and havesmall populations by world standards. They have similarhistories and enjoy close relations on many fronts. In terms of population characteristics, Australia and New Zealandhave much in common. Both countries have minority indigenous populations, andduring the latter half of the 20th century have seen a steady stream ofmigrants from a variety of regions throughout the world. Both countries have experienced similar declines infertility since the high levels recorded during the baby boom, and alongsidethis have enjoyed the benefits of continually improving life expectancy. Oneconsequence of these trends is that both countries are faced with an ageingpopulation, and the associated challenge of providing appropriate care

and support for thisgrowing group within the community.

5.38  Retirement

For a start, we need tochange our concept of'retirement', and we need to change mindsets arising from earlier governmentpolicy which, in the face of high unemployment levels, encouraged matureworkers to take early retirement.

Today, governmentencourages them to delay theirretirement.We now need to think of retirement as a phased process, where matureage workers gradually reducetheir hours, and where they have considerable flexibility in how they combinetheir work and non work time.

We also need torecognize the broader change that is occurring in how people work, learn, andlive. Increasingly we are moving away from a linear relationship betweeneducation, training, work, and retirement, as people move in and out of jobs,careers, caregiving, study, and leisure. Employers of choice remove the barriers betweenthe different segments of people's lives, by creating flexible conditions ofwork and a range of leave entitlements. They take an individualised approach toworkforce planning and development so that the needs of employers and employeescan be met simultaneously.This approach supports the different transitions that occur across the lifecourse – for example, school to work, becoming a parent, becoming responsiblefor the care of older relatives, and moving from work to retirement.

5.39  The sun and the moon/日与月

In these distant times, the sun was seento make its daily journeyacross the sky. At night the moon appeared. Every new nightthe moon waxed or waned a little and on a few nights, it did not appear at all.At night the great dome of the heavens was dotted with tiny specks of light.They became knownas the stars. It was thought that every star in the heavens had its own purposeand that the secretsof the universe could be discovered by making a study ofthem.

It was well known that there werewandering stars, they appeared in different nightly positions against theirneighbours and they became known as planets. It took centuries, in fact, ittook millennia, for man to determine the true nature of these wandering starsand to evolve a model of the world to accommodate them and to predict theirpositions in the sky.

5.40  Symbiosis

Symbiosis is a general termfor interspecific interactionsin which two species live together in a long-term, intimate association. In everydaylife, we sometimes use the term symbiosis to mean a relationship that benefits bothparties. However, in ecologist-speak, symbiosis is a broader concept and caninclude close, lasting relationships with a variety of positive or negativeeffects on the participants.

5.41  Opportunity cost (RW)

Opportunity costincorporates the notion ofscarcity: No matter what we do, there is always a trade-off. We must trade offone thing for another because resources are limited and can be used indifferent ways. By acquiring something, we use up resources that could havebeen used to acquire something else. The notion of opportunity cost allows usto measure this trade-off. In most decisions we choose from severalalternatives. For example, if you spend an hour studying for an economics exam,you have one fewer hour to pursue other activities. To determine the opportunitycost of an activity, we look at what you consider the best of these “other”activities. For example, suppose the alternatives to studying economics arestudying for a history exam or working in a job that pays $10 per hour. If youconsider studying for history a better use of your time than working,then the opportunity cost of studying economics is the four extra points youcould have received on a history exam if you studied history instead of economics.Alternatively, if working is the best alternative, the opportunity cost ofstudying economics is the $10 you could have earned instead.

5.42  Environmentalists /环境学家

Although environmentalists have been warning aboutthis situation for decades, many other people are finally beginning to realisethat if we don't act soon it will be too late. The good news is that more andmore businesses and governments are beginning to understand thatwithout a healthy environment the global economy and everything that depends onit will be seriously endangered. And they are beginning to take positive action.

5.43  Steven Pinker/史蒂文平克

Steven Pinker, a cognitive psychologistbest known for his book "The Language Instinct" has called music"auditory cheesecake, an exquisite confection crafted to tickle thesensitive spots of at east six of our mental faculties." If it vanished fromour species, he said, “the rest of our lifestyle would be virtually unchanged."Others have argued that, on the contrary, music, along with art andliterature, is part of what makes people human; its absence would have abrutalizing effect. Philip Ball, a British science writer and an avid musicenthusiast, comes down somewhere in the middle. He says that music is ingrainedin our auditory, cognitive and motor functions. We have a music instinct asmuch as a language instinct, and could not rid ourselves of it if we tried.

5.44  TV advertising

From a child's point ofview, what is the purpose of TV advertising? Is advertising on TV done to giveactors the opportunity to take a rest or practice their lines? Or is it done to make peoplebuy things? Furthermore, is the main difference between programs andcommercials that commercials are for real, whereas programs are not, or thatprograms are for kids and commercials for adults? As has been shown several timesin the literature (e.g. Butter et al. 1981 Donohue, Henke, and Donohue 1980Macklin 1983 and 1987 Robertson and Rossiter 1974 Stephens and Stutts 1982),some children are able to distinguish between programs andcommercials and are aware ofthe intent of TV advertising, whereas others are not.

5.45  Allergies (RW)

What Are Allergies?

Allergies are abnormalimmune system reactions to things that are typically harmless to most people.When you're allergic to something, your immune system mistakenly believes that thissubstance is harmful to your body. (Substances that cause allergic reactions —such as certain foods, dust, plant pollen, or medicines — are known as allergens.)

In an attempt to protect the body, the immunesystem produces IgE antibodies to that allergen. Those antibodies then causecertain cells in the body to release chemicals into thebloodstream, one of which is histamine (pronounced: HIS-tuh-meen).

The histamine then acts on the eyes, nose,throat, lungs, skin, or gastrointestinal tract and causes the symptoms of theallergic reaction. Future exposure to that same allergen will trigger thisantibody response again. This means that every time you come into contact withthat allergen, you'll have some form of allergy symptoms.

5.46  Impressionist painters

Impressionist painterswere considered radical intheir time because they broke many of the rules of the picture making set byearlier generations.They found many of their subjects in life around them ratherthan in history, which was then the accepted source of subject matter.

5.47  People who visit healthprofessionals

People who visit healthprofessionals tend to be older than the general population because illnessincreases with age. However, the proportion of the population whovisited complementary health therapists was highest between the ages 25 and 64years. The lower rates for people aged 65 years and over contrasted with the rate of visits toother health professionals which increased steadily with increasing age. Thereasons for this difference might include lower levels of acceptance of complementary therapiesby older people. Alternatively, older people may have different treatmentpriorities than do younger people because their health on average is worsewhile their incomes are generally lower.

5.48  Edison (RW)

Like Ben Franklin,Thomas Alva Edison was both a scientist and an inventor. Born in 1847, Edisonwould see tremendous changetake place in his lifetime. He was also to be responsible for making many ofthose changes occur. When Edison was born, society still thought of electricityas a novelty, afad. By the time he died, entire cities were lit by electricity. Much of thecredit for that progress goes to Edison. In his lifetime, Edison patented 1,093inventions, earning him the nickname "The Wizard of Menlo Park" Themost famous of his inventions was the incandescent light bulb. Besides thelight bulb, Edison developed the phonograph and the "kinetoscope," asmall box for viewing moving films. He also improved upon the original design ofthe stock ticker, the telegraph, and Alexander Graham Bell's telephone. Hebelieved in hard work, sometimes working twenty hours a day. Edison was quotedas saying, "Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percentperspiration." In tribute to this important American,electric lights in the United States were dimmed for one minute on October 21,1931, a few days after his death.

5.49  Life changes/生活变化

Research has suggested that major stressesin our lives are life changes, for example, moving house, marriage or relationshipbreakdown. Work-related factors, including unemployment and boredom,are also common causesof stress Differences in personality may also play a part.

5.50  The Milky Way System/银河系

Stars and the material between them arealmost always found in gigantic stellar systems called galaxies. Ourown galaxy, the Milky Way System, happens to be one of the two largest systemsin the Local Group of two dozen or so galaxies. The other is the Andromedagalaxy; it stretchesmore than one hundred thousand light-years from one end tothe other, and it is located about two million light-years distant fromus.

5.51  Tropical forests/热带雨林

Charles Darwin knew intuitively thattropical forests were places of tremendous intricacy and energy. Heand his cohort of scientific naturalists were awed by the beauty of theNeotropics, where they collected tens of thousands of species newto science. But they couldn't have guessed at the complete contents of the rainforest, and they had no idea of its value to humankind.

5.52  Volcano Eruption

Volcanoes blast morethan 100 million tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year but thegas is usually harmless.When a volcano erupts, carbon dioxide spreads out into the atmosphere and isn'tconcentrated inone spot. But sometimes the gas gets trapped underground under enormous pressure.If it escapes to the surface in a dense cloud, it can push out oxygen-rich airand become deadly.

5.53  Global textile industry/全球纺织业

The environmental impact of the globaltextile industry is hard to overstate. One-third of the water used worldwide isspent fashioning fabrics. For every ton of cloth produced, 200tons of water is polluted with chemicals and heavy metals. An estimated 1 trillionkilowatt-hours of electricity powers the factories that card and comb, spin andweave, and cut and stitch materials into everything from T-shirts to towels, leaving behindmountains of solid waste and a massive carbon footprint.

"Where the industry is today is notreally sustainable for the long term," says Shreyaskar Chaudhary, chiefexecutive of Pratibha Syntex, a textile manufacturer based outside Indore,India.

With something of an "if you buildit, they will come" attitude, Mr.Chaudhary has steered Pratibha toward theleading edge of eco-friendly textile production. Under his direction, Pratibhabegan making clothes with organic cotton in 1999. Initially, the companycouldn’t find enough organic farms growing cotton in central India to supply itsfactories. To meet production demands, Chaudhary's team had to convinceconventional cotton farmers to change their growing methods. Pratibhaprovided seeds, cultivation instruction, and a guarantee of fairtrade pricesfor their crops. Today, Pratibha has a network of 28,000 organic cotton growersacross the central states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Orissa.

5.54  Great engineers/伟大的工程师

Great engineers have a passion to improvelife; a burning conviction that they can make life better for everyone.Engineers need to have a talent for invention and innovation, but what drives themis the conviction that they can find a better way to do things; a cheaper andmore efficient solution to the problems of human existence on this planet of limited resourcesthat we call Earth.

Many of us spend a lotof time complaining about the difficulties and problems of life. It is easy tofind fault with things that make daily life arduous. For an engineer, thesedifficulties can be opportunities. How can this be made to work better? How canthat process be made more efficient? How can components be made morecheaply, more accurately and more fit-for-purpose? Great engineers areconvinced that everything can be improved. Instead of complaining, theythink of ways to make things better.

5.55  Siblings

No two siblings are thesame, not even identical twins.Parents often puzzle aboutwhy their children are so different from one another. They'll say, 'I brought themI up all the same.' They forget that what determines our behaviour isn't whathappens to us but how we interpret what happens to us, and notwo people ever see anything in exactly the same way.

5.56  How to make cloth/如何织布

About10,000 years ago, people learned how to make cloth. Wool, cotton, flax, or hempwas first spun into a thin thread, using a spindle. The thread was then woveninto a fabric. The earliest weaving machines probably consisted of littlemore than a pair of sticks that held a set of parallel threads, called thewrap, while the cross-thread, called the weft was inserted Later machinescalled looms had roads that separated the threads to allow the weft to beinserted more easily,a piece of wood, called the shuttle, holding a spool of thread, was passedbetween the separated threads. The basic principles of spinning and weavinghave stayed the same until the present day though during the industrialrevolution of the 18th century many ways were found of automating theprocesses. With new machines such as the spinning mule, many threads could bespun at the same time, and, with the help of devices like the flying shuttle,broad pieces of cloth could be woven at great speed.

5.57  No parents

For many first-year students, the University may betheir first experience living away from home for an extended period. It is a definite breakfrom home. In my point of view, this is the best thing that you can do. I knowyou have to fend for yourself, cook and clean after yourself, basically lookafter yourself without your parents but the truth is some time in your life youare going to have to part with lovely Mummy and Daddy. But they areonly just a phone call away, and it is really good to have some QUALITY TIMEwithout them. The first few weeks can be a lonely period. There may be concernsabout forming the friendship. When new students look around, it may seem thateveryone else is self-confident and socially successful! The reality isthat everyone has the same concerns.

Increased personal freedom can feel both wonderful and frightening.Students can come and go as they choose with no one to hassle them. The strangeenvironment with new kinds of procedures and new people can create the sense ofbeing on an emotional roller coaster. This is normal and to be expected. Youmeet so many more people in the halls than if you stayed at home. The mainpoints about living away from home are

NO PARENTS! You don't have to tell them where you'regoing, who you're going with, what time you'll be coming, why you're going etc.etc.

You learn various social skills you have to get alongwith your roommates Living with them can present special, sometimes intense,problems. Negotiating respect of personal property, personal space, sleep, andrelaxation needs, can be a complex task. The complexity increases whenroommates are of different backgrounds with very different values.It is unrealistic to expect that roommates will be best friends. Meaningful,new relationships should not be expected to develop overnight. It took a greatdeal of time to develop intimacy in high school friendships the same will betrue of intimacy in university friendships.

You have a phone! So if you ever get homesick or missyou, Mummy, then shes always at the end of a phone-line for you and so are yourfriends.

5.58  Distance learning/远程学习

Distance learning can behighly beneficial to a large variety of people from young students wanting toexpand their horizons to adults looking for more job security, with programsthat allow learners of all ages to take courses for fun, personal advancementand degrees, distance learning can meet the needs of a diverse population.

Perhaps one of the mostnotable and often talked about advantages of distance learning is theflexibility the majority of programs allow students to learn when and whereit's convenient for them. For those who are struggling to balancetheir distance learning goals with working a fulltime job and taking care of afamily this kind of flexibility can allow many people to pursue education whowould not otherwise be able to do so. since there are no on-campus coursesto attend, students can learn from their own homes, at work on their lunchbreaks and from virtually anywhere with internet access. For some it can evenbe a big source of savings on the fuel costs and time required to commute toclasses.

5.59  Interior design/室内设计

Interior design is aprofessionally conducted, practice-based process of planning and realization ofinterior spaces and the elements within. Interior design is concerned withthe function and operation of the aesthetics and its sustainability. The workof an interior designer draws upon many other disciplines, such asenvironmental psychology, architecture, product design and, aesthetics, inrelation to a wide range of building spaces including hotels corporate andpublic spaces, schools, hospitals, private residences, shopping malls,restaurants, theaters and airport terminals.

5.60  Criminal acts/罪行

The narrative of law and orderis located fundamentally at the level of individual guilt andresponsibility. Criminal acts are seen as individual issues of personalresponsibility and culpability,to which the state responds by way of policing, prosecution,adjudication and punishment.

This is but one level at whichcrime and criminal justice can be analyzed. The problem is that so oftenanalysis ends there, at the level of individual action, characterized interms of responsibility, guilt, evil.

5.61  Global problem/全球性问题

Youmay well ask why science did not warn us of global warming sooner; I think thatthere are several reasons. We were from the 1970s until the end of the centurydistracted by the important global problem of stratospheric ozone depletion,which we knew was manageable. We threw all our efforts into it and succeededbut had little time to spend on climate change. Climate science was alsoneglected because twentieth-century science failed to recognize thetrue nature of Earth as a responsive self-regulating entity. Biologists wereso carried away by Darwin’s great vision that they failed to see that livingthings were tightly coupled to their material environment and that evolutionconcerns the

wholeEarth system with living organisms an integral part of it. Earth is not theGoldilocks planet of the solar system sitting at the right place for life. Itwas in this favorable state some two billion years ago but now our planet hasto work hard, against ever-increasing heat from the Sun, to keep itself habitable Wehave chosen the worst of times to add to its difficulties.

5.62  Foreign students' Englishstandards (RW)

Federal EducationMinister Julie Bishop says she has seen no evidence that international studentsare graduating from Australian universities with poor English skills.

Research by MonashUniversity academic Bob Birrell has found a third of international students aregraduating without acompetent level of English.

But Ms. Bishop saysAustralian universities only enroll international students once they haveachieved international standards of language proficiency.

“This has been anextraordinary attack by Professor Birrell on our universities,’’ she said.

"Internationalstudents must meet international benchmarks in the English language inorder to get a place at a university in Australia, and they can't get intouniversity without reaching that international standard.”

University of Canberravice-chancellor Roger Dean also says international students are required to sitan English test before being admitted to nearly all Australian universities.

"There are, ofcourse, intercultural difficulties as well as language difficulties,” he said.

"There are, ofcourse, also many Australian students who don't speak such fantastically good Englisheither."

“So we're trying to pushthe standard even higher than a present, but it's a very useful one already.”

Ms. Bishop saysAustralia's university system has high standards.

“I've seen no evidenceto suggest that students are not able to complete their courses because they'refailing in English yet they're being passed by the universities,” she said.

“I’ve not seen anyevidence to back that up."

"Internationaleducation is one of our largest exports, it's our fourth largest export, andit's in the interest of our universities to maintain very high standardsbecause their recognition isat stake.”

5.63  Tokyo's Skytree/东京晴空塔

TeamLabs digital mural at theentrance to Tokyos Skytree, one of the worlds monster skyscrapers, is 40meters long and immensely detailed But however massive this form of digitalart becomes -and it's a form subject to rampant inflation-Inoko's theoriesabout seeing are based on more modest and often pre-digital sources. An earlydevotee of comic books and cartoons (no surprises there), then computer games,he recognized when he started to look at traditional Japanese art that allthose forms had something in common: something about the way they capturedspace. In his discipline of physics, Inoko had been taught that photographiclenses, along with the conventions of western art were the logical way oftransforming three dimensions into two, conveying the real world on to a flatsurface, but Japanese traditions employed "a different spatiallogic", as he said in an interview last year with jcollabo.orgthat is"uniquely Japanese".

5.64  Material culture studies/物质文化研究

Thestudy of objects constitutes a relatively new field of academic inquiry,commonly referred to as material culture studies. Students of material cultureseek to understand societies, both past and present, through careful study and observation ofthe physical or material objects generated by those societies. The sourcematerial for study is exceptionally wide, including not just human-madeartifacts but also natural objects and even preserved body parts (as you saw inthe film ’Encountering a body’).

Somespecialists in the field of material culture have made bold claims for itspre-eminence In certain disciplines, it reigns supreme. It plays a criticalrole in archaeology, for example, especially in circumstances wherewritten evidence is either patchy or non-existent. In such cases, objects areall scholars haveto rely on in forming an understanding of ancient peoples. Even where writtendocuments survive the physical remains of literate cultures often help toprovide new and interesting insights into how people once lived and thought, asin the case of medieval and post-medieval archaeology. In analyzing thephysical remains of societies, both past and present, historians,archaeologists, anthropologists and others have been careful to remind us thatobjects mean differentthings to different people.

5.65  Movement in painting (RW)

Movement in painting that originated in France in the 1860s andhad enormous influence in European and North American painting in the late 19thcentury. The Impressionists wanted to depict real life, to paint straightfrom nature, and to capture the changing effects of light. The term was firstused abusively to describe Claude Monet’s painting Impression: Sunrise (1872).The other leading Impressionists included Paul Camile, Edger Degas, Edouard,Manet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Alfred Sisley, but onlyMonet remained devoted to Impressionist ideas throughout his career.

The core of the Impressionist group was formed in theearly 1860s by Monet, Renoir, and Sisley, who met as students and enjoyedpainting in the open air – one of the hallmarks of Impressionism. They metother members of the Impressionist circle through Paris café society. Theynever made up a formal group, but they organized eight group exhibitionsbetween 1874 and 1886, at the first of which the name Impressionism wasapplied. Their styles were diverse, but all experimented with effects of light andmovement created with distinct brush strokes and fragments of color dabbed side-by-sideon the canvas rather than mixed on the palette. By the 1880s the movement’scentral impulse had dispersed, and a number of new styles were emerging, laterdescribed as post-impressionism.

British Impressionism had a major influence on the moreexperimental andprogressive British painters in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Many ofthe painters were affected in the circle of Walter Sickert, who spent much ofhis career in France and was an influential figure who inspired many younger artists. Hisfriend and exact contemporary Philip Wilson Steer is generally regarded as themost outstanding British Impressionist.

5.66  SpaceX/太空探索技术公司

SpaceXsFalcon 9 rocket lifted off from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on Friday at 1845 GMT(1445 EDT), reaching orbit 9 minutes later.

The rocket lofted an uncrewed mockup ofSpaceX’s Dragon capsule, which is designed to one day carry both crew and cargoto orbit. “This has been a good day for SpaceX and a promising developmentfor the US human spaceflight program,” said Robyn Ringuette of SpaceX in awebcast of the launch.

In a teleconference with themedia on Thursday, SpaceX’s CEO, Paypal co-founder Elon Musk, said he wouldconsider the flight 100 percent successful if it reached orbit. “Even if weprove out just that the first stage functions correctly, I’d still say that’s agood day for a test,” he said. “It’s a great day if both stages workcorrectly.”

SpaceX hopes to win a NASA contract tolaunch astronauts to the International Space Station using the Falcon 9. USgovernment space shuttles, which currently make these trips, are scheduled to retire forsafety reasons at the end of 2010.

5.67  SISU/上海外国语大学

Upholding the motto of"Integrity, Vision and Academic Excellence" Shanghai InternationalStudies University (SISU) is an internationally recognized, prestigiousacademic institution distinctive for its multidisciplinary and multicultural nature,committed to preparing innovative professionals and future global leaders for awide range of international expertise to address theoritical challenges of ourtimes.

Drawing on our strengths inmulti-language programs and multi-disciplinary resources, while responding tonational and regional strategies, we operate more than 70 research institutesand centers serving as academic think tanks to provide advisory services on languagepolicies, diplomatic strategies and global public opinion ofChina. These

academic entities havecontributed landmark research and are also dedicated to promoting thedevelopment of social sciences in China.

We have now established partnershipswith more than 330 universities and institutions from 56 countries and regions,and have maintainedclose connection with international organizations, includingthe United Nations and the European Union.

5.68  Plates

In geologic terms, aplate is a large, rigid slab of solid rock. The word tectonics comes from theGreek root "tobuild." Putting these two words together, we get the term plate tectonics,which refers tohow the Earth's surface is built of plates. The theory of plate tectonics states thatthe Earth's outermost layer is fragmented into a dozen or more large andsmall plates that are moving relative to one another.

PART 6 Write from Dictation


1.           Acelebrated theory is still the source of great controversy.

2.           Agood research assistant is not afraid to ask questions.

3.           Accountingstudents should have a good understanding of profit and loss statements.

4.           Allof the assignments must be submitted in person to the faculty office.

5.           Althoughsustainable development is not easy, it is our responsibility.

6.           Animalsraised in captivity behave differently than their wild counterparts.

7.           Assignmentsshould be submitted to the department office before the deadline.

8.           Beforesubmitting your dissertation, your adviser/advisor must approve yourapplication.

9.           Behindthe crops, there is a flat cart drawn by mules.

10.        Behindthe groups, there is a flat cart drawn by mules.

11.        Climatechange is now an acceptable phenomenon among reputable scientists.

12.        Clinicalplacement in nursing prepares students for professional practice.

13.        Controlsystems in manufacturing provide a high level in accuracy.

14.        Everyonemust evacuate the premises during the fire drill.

15.        Findout how to get sources resources before your research.

16.        Freecampus tours run daily during summer for prospective students.

17.        Goodresearch paper delivers practical benefits to real people.

18.        Graduatesof journalism can get jobs in the communications field.

19.        Hewas constantly looking for ways to bring industry and agriculture closelytogether.

20.        Ithought it was through the small meeting room.

21.        Iffinance is a cause of concern, scholarships may be available.

22.        Itis absolutely vital that you acknowledge all your sources.

23.        Itwas hard to anticipate how all the different characters would react.

24.        Letme know if anyone/anybody struggles in the lab.

25.        Mostof these features were part of the previous system.

26.        Moststudents have not considered this issue before.

27.        Mutuallyexclusive events can be described as either complementary or opposite.

28.        Nativespeakers are exempt from the language tests in their own language.

29.        Observerswaited nervously and with bated breath for the concert.

30.        Oneof the election promises is to decrease the income tax.

31.        Ourprofessor is hosting the business development conference.

32.        Participantsinitially select from a range of foundation subjects.

33.        Pleaseclick the logo above to enter the site.

34.        Radiois a popular form of entertainment throughout the world.

35.        Reviewall sources before drawing any conclusions.

36.        Scientistsare always asking the government for more money.

37.        Severalcandidates were graded as the greatest scientists of all time.

38.        Sheused to be the editor of the student newspaper.

39.        Somepeople are motivated by competition, while others prefer collaboration.

40.        Students(who) attempted to go to the conference must register now.

41.        Studentsare encouraged to monitor their own attendance.

42.        Studentshave the options to live in college residences or apartments.

43.        Studentswere instructed to submit their assignments by Friday.

44.        Students’concession cards can be obtained by completing an application form.

45.        Supplyand demand is one of the most fundamental concepts in economics.

46.        Teachingassistants will receive a monthly stipend for housing.

47.        Thatmeans that we have so many struggles in the lab.

48.        Theability to work with fellow students cannot be stressed enough.

49.        Theaerial photographs were promptly registered for thorough evaluation.

50.        Theapplication process may take longer than expected.

51.        Thearticle refers (to)/reflects/verifies/records a number of interestingexperiments.

52.        Theartists tied to conservative politicians earned their own roles as the critics.

53.        Thebusiness policy seminar includes an internship with a local firm.

54.        Thechemistry building is located near the entrance to the campus.

55.        Thecity/city’s/cities/cities’ founders created a set of rules that became the law.

56.        Thecommissioner will (collect) portion the funds all sovereignties.

57.        Thecommissioner will collect and portion out the funds to all sovereignties.

58.        Thecommissioner will will collect the portions of funds from all sovereignties.

59.        Theeconomy is now showing the/its first sign/signs of recovery.

60.        Theevaluation forms will be reviewed by university personnel.

61.        Thefirst assignment is due on the fourteenth of September.

62.        Thelibrary holds a substantial collection of materials on economic history.

63.        Themassive accumulation of data was converted into a communicable argument.

64.        Thenation achieved prosperity by opening its ports for trade.

65.        Thenew medical students should attend the talk about optional courses.

66.        Thenew paper challenged many previously accepted theories.

67.        Theplacement test of/for mathematics and statistics is offered every semester.

68.        Theposter of this play is hung in the large lecture theater.

69.        Thequalification will be assessed by using criterion reference to approach.

70.        Therailways make long-distance travel possible for everyone.

71.        Thesame issue featured both explanations of the problem.

72.        Thesociology department is highly regarded worldwide.

73.        Thestudents were instructed to submit their assignments before Friday.

74.        Thesummer course was cancelled (UK)/canceled (US) due to insufficient enrollment.

75.        Thesynopsis contains the most important information.

76.        Theteacher asked the group to commence the task.

77.        Thetheme of the instrumental work exhibited more of a demure compositional style.

78.        Thetoughest part of postgraduate education is funding.

79.        Theways in which people communicate are constantly changing.

80.        Thereare opportunities to receive the grants from most artistic fields.

81.        Therehave been (too) many struggles in the mathematics department.

82.        Thereis a welcome party for all new students for each term.

83.        Theywere struggling last year to make their service pay.

84.        Thiscourse considerably emphasizes on the critical thinking skills.

85.        Thismorning’s lecture on economic policy has been cancelled.

86.        Thisproblem is complex and difficult to explain.

87.        Thoseseeking for formal extension should contact their faculty for information.

88.        Thosewho are considering a career of marketing should attend the talk.

89.        Thosewho seek for formal extension should contact their faculty for information.

90.        Trafficis the main cause of (air) pollution in many cities.

91.        Tribesvibe with each other to build up monolithic statues.

92.        Undergraduatesmay participate in specific stages within the program.

93.        Undergraduatespursue their interests in special/specific stages within the program.

94.        Universitydepartments carefully monitored/monitor articles and other publications byfaculty.

95.        Wecan’t consider any increase in our prices at this stage.

96.        Westudy science to understand and appreciate the world around us.

97.        Whenworkers ask for higher wages, companies often raise their prices.

98.        Whilereconciliation is desirable, basic underlying issues must first be addressed.

99.        Youare required to complete the research paper by Monday.

100.      You can contact all your tutors by email.

101.      You will need to purchase an academic gownbefore/for the commencement.

102.      Your lowest quiz grade has been omittedfrom the calculations.


1.         Alllectures and learning materials can be found on the internet.

2.         Anintroduction is an essential element of presentation.

3.         Collaborationbetween departments is a feature of successful companies.

4.         Experts are(now) able to forecast weather over much longer periods.

5.         Geographyis generally divided into two branches: of human and physical.

6.         He isregarded as the most foremost economist this year.

7.         In thislanguage course, we focus on fluency and accuracy.

8.         No morethan four people can be in the lab at once.

9.         Pleasevisit the website for information about the opening times.

10.       Read safetyinstructions before using the equipment during the workshop.

11.       Somedepartments have their own special book collections.

12.       Students areencouraged to monitor studies by themselves.

13.       The articlepresents a number of very interesting experiments.

14.       The cameracan identify eyes and focus on them.

15.       Thedepartment has higher than normal proportion of postgraduate students.

16.       Thedesigners will complete the plan later today. The visiting guest used to be thelecturer of this department.

17.       The essaycontains most of the important information.

18.       The plightof wildlife has been ignored by developers.

19.       Theprofessor took one year working on her book.

20.       The site isdesigned to be interactive.

21.       Thesustainable development is not easy, but it is unavoidable.

22.       Thetimetable for the next/new term will be available next week.

23.       The visitorused to be the lecturer of this department.

24.       There aredifferent/many types of governments in the world.

25.       Tomorrow’slecture will discuss educational policy in the United States.

26.       Undergraduatesneed some specific sources to analyze a program .

27.       We have notyet achieved equality in our society.

28.       You shouldsubmit your team papers to the general office.

29.       You willacquire many skills during the academic studies.

PART 7 Fill in the Blank Listening)近期常见单词













boast (up)



































































financial institutions